Journal of Diabetes Research / 2012 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Cellular Dysfunction in Diabetes as Maladaptive Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

Figure 1

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) respond to hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide by catalyzing mild uncoupling, which lowers membrane potential ( ) and decreases superoxide production by mitochondrial complex I and III of the electron transport chain. Antioxidants limit the impact of superoxide production on molecular oxidative damage (for more details, see text). MS: mitochondrial redox shuttles; : superoxide radical; PT: pyruvate transporter; TCA: tricarboxylic acid cycle.
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