Journal of Diabetes Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Cellular Dysfunction in Diabetes as Maladaptive Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

Table 1

Effects of oxidative damage in protein structure and function.

(i) Cleavage of peptide bonds
(ii) Direct reaction of proteins with ROS can lead to formation of protein derivatives or peptide fragments possessing highly reactive carbonyl groups (ketones, aldehydes)
(iii) Formation of intra- or interprotein cross-linked derivatives that can lead to the formation of aggregates by (a) direct interaction of two carbon-centered radicals; (b) interaction of two tyrosine radicals; (c) oxidation of cysteine sulfhydryl groups; (d) interactions of the carbonyl groups of oxidized proteins with the primary amino groups of lysine residues in the same or a different protein; (e) by noncovalent interactions such as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between oxidized residues
(iv) Partial unfolding or denaturation with a concomitant increase in surface hydrophobicity
(v) Loss of function (e.g., enzyme activity)

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