Figure 3: Urine markers indicate glomerular injury in . (a) mice exhibited consistent and progressive albuminuria, measured as albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ( at all timepoints versus KK-a/a). No difference was observed in ACR between and + Unx. (b) Glomerular injury in mice was suggested by progressive elevation of the podocyte-specific protein nephrin in the urine. Again, urine nephrin levels were comparable in and + Unx mice ( versus KK-a/a). (c) When compared to KK-a/a, the renal tubular marker Kim1 was also elevated in mice. Interestingly, Kim1 levels in + Unx animals were lower than in mice.