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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 179686, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/179686
Research Article

Cumulative Effects of Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Chronic Kidney Disease on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
2School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Received 25 March 2014; Accepted 4 April 2014; Published 22 April 2014

Academic Editor: Nikolaos Papanas

Copyright © 2014 Chuang Yuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aims. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in relation to the cumulative atherosclerosis risk factors using ultrasonography. Methods. The presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was documented in 106 Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with 0, 1, and ≥2 additional atherosclerosis risk factors were assigned into groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively ( , 49, and 40, resp.). Using ultrasound, the carotid arteries were assessed for the presence of carotid plaque, plaque score, intima-media thickness (IMT), and carotid arterial stiffness. Results. With the adjustment for age and gender, the presence of plaque and plaque score were significantly higher in groups with more atherosclerosis risk factors ( ). In addition, age > 60 years old (odds ratio = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26–6.0) and the presence of hypertension (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.11–5.58), dyslipidemia (odds ratio = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.05–5.51), and CKD (odds ratio = 7.80; 95% CI: 1.46–41.72) could independently predict higher plaque score ( ). Conclusions. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and CKD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes have cumulative effects on the burden of carotid plaque.