Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 727483, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/727483
Research Article

No Evidence of Viral Transmission following Long-Term Implantation of Agarose Encapsulated Porcine Islets in Diabetic Dogs

1The Rogosin Institute-Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385, USA
2The Rogosin Institute, New York, NY 10021, USA
3Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
4Bob Evans Farms, Inc., New Albany, OH 43054, USA
5NAMSA, Northwood, OH 43619, USA
6NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA

Received 3 February 2014; Revised 15 May 2014; Accepted 18 May 2014; Published 5 June 2014

Academic Editor: Åke Lernmark

Copyright © 2014 Lawrence S. Gazda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Feng, M. Barr, J. Roberts, R. Oberbauer, and B. Kaplan, “Developments in clinical islet, liver thoracic, kidney and pancreas transplantation in the last 5 years,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1759–1767, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. McCall and A. M. J. Shapiro, “Update on islet transplantation,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, vol. 2, no. 7, Article ID a007823, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. L. Larsen, “Pancreas transplantation: indications and consequences,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 919–946, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. S. Klein, E. E. Messersmith, L. E. Ratner, R. Kochik, P. K. Baliga, and A. O. Ojo, “Organ donation and utilization in the United States, 1999—2008: special feature,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 973–986, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. C. Gruessner, D. E. R. Sutherland, and R. W. G. Gruessner, “Pancreas transplantation in the United States: a review,” Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 93–101, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. S. Gazda, H. V. Vinerean, M. A. Laramore et al., “Encapsulation of porcine islets permits extended culture time and insulin independence in spontaneously diabetic BB rats,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 609–620, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Bliss, The Discovery of Insulin, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1982.
  8. D. E. Akiyoshi, M. Denaro, H. Zhu, J. L. Greenstein, P. Banerjee, and J. A. Fishman, “Identification of a full-length cDNA for an endogenous retrovirus of miniature swine,” Journal of Virology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 4503–4507, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Zell, A. Krumbholz, A. Henke et al., “Detection of porcine enteroviruses by nRT-PCR: differentiation of CPE groups I-III with specific primer sets,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 205–218, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. M. Pogranichnyy, K.-J. Yoon, P. A. Harms, S. L. Swenson, J. J. Zimmerman, and S. D. Sorden, “Characterization of immune response of young pigs to porcine circovirus type 2 infection,” Viral Immunology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 143–153, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Ehlers, S. Ulrich, and M. Goltz, “Detection of two novel porcine herpesviruses with high similarity to gammaherpesviruses,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 80, part 4, pp. 971–978, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Kasorndorkbua, P. G. Halbur, P. J. Thomas, D. K. Guenette, T. E. Toth, and X. J. Meng, “Use of a swine bioassay and a RT-PCR assay to assess the risk of transmission of swine hepatitis E virus in pigs,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 101, no. 1-2, pp. 71–78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. W. Molitor, K. Oraveerakul, Q. Q. Zhang, C. S. Choi, and L. R. Ludemann, “Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification for the detection of porcine parvovirus,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 32, no. 2-3, pp. 201–211, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. L. Hamel, L. Lin, C. Sachvie, E. Grudeski, and G. P. S. Nayar, “PCR assay for detecting porcine cytomegalovirus,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 3767–3768, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Calsamiglia, C. Pijoan, and A. Trigo, “Application of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from nasal swabs,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 246–251, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Denner and R. R. Tönjes, “Infection barriers to successful xenotransplantation focusing on porcine endogenous retroviruses,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 318–343, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Patience, Y. Takeuchi, and R. A. Weiss, “Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs,” Nature Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 282–286, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Garkavenko, B. Dieckhoff, S. Wynyard et al., “Absence of transmission of potentially xenotic viruses in a prospective pig to primate islet xenotransplantation study,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 2046–2052, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. V. Specke, R. Plesker, J. Wood et al., “No in vivo infection of triple immunosuppressed non-human primates after inoculation with high titers of porcine endogenous retroviruses,” Xenotransplantation, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 34–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Scobie, V. Padler-Karavani, S. le Bas-Bernardet et al., “Long-term IgG response to porcine Neu5Gc antigens without transmission of PERV in burn patients treated with porcine skin xenografts,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 191, no. 6, pp. 2907–2915, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. W. Heneine, W. M. Switzer, J. M. Soucie et al., “Evidence of porcine endogenous retroviruses in porcine factor VIII and evaluation of transmission to recipients with hemophilia,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 183, no. 4, pp. 648–652, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Xu, A. Sharma, J. Okabe et al., “Serologic analysis of anti-porcine endogenous retroviruses immune responses in humans after ex vivo transgenic pig liver perfusion,” ASAIO Journal, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 407–416, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Di Nicuolo, A. D'Alessandro, B. Andria et al., “Long-term absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in chronically immunosuppressed patients after treatment with the porcine cell-based Academic Medical Center bioartificial liver,” Xenotransplantation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 431–439, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Irgang, I. M. Sauer, A. Karlas et al., “Porcine endogenous retroviruses: no infection in patients treated with a bioreactor based on porcine liver cells,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 141–154, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Valdes-Gonzalez, L. M. Dorantes, E. Bracho-Blanchet, A. Rodríguez-Ventura, and D. J. G. White, “No evidence of porcine endogenous retrovirus in patients with type 1 diabetes after long-term porcine islet xenotransplantation,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 331–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. Wang, Z. Mo, B. Ye, P. Hu, S. Liu, and S. Yi, “A clinical trial of xenotransplantation of neonatal pig islets for diabetic patients,” Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, vol. 36, pp. 1134–1140, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. Y. Meije, R. R. Tönjes, and J. A. Fishman, “Retroviral restriction factors and infectious risk in xenotransplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1511–1516, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. J. Mueller, Y. Takeuchi, G. Mattiuzzo, and L. Scobie, “Microbial safety in xenotransplantation,” Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. W. Holdcraft, L. S. Gazda, L. Circle et al., “Enhancement of in vitro and in vivo function of agarose encapsulated porcine islets by changes in the islet microenvironment,” Cell Transplantation, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. J. A. Fishman, “Infection and xenotransplantation developing strategies to minimize risk,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 862, pp. 52–66, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. S. Gazda, H. V. Vinerean, M. A. Laramore, J. W. Carraway, R. D. Hall, and B. H. Smith, “Pravastatin improves glucose regulation and biocompatibility of agarose encapsulated porcine islets following transplantation into pancreatectomized dogs,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2014, Article ID 405362, 10 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. B. H. Smith, L. S. Gazda, B. L. Conn et al., “Three-dimensional culture of mouse renal carcinoma cells in agarose macrobeads selects for a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell or cancer progenitor properties,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 716–724, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. H. Smith, L. S. Gazda, B. L. Conn et al., “Hydrophilic agarose macrobead cultures select for outgrowth of carcinoma cell populations that can restrict tumor growth,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 725–735, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus