Journal of Diabetes Research / 2015 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Meat Intake and Insulin Resistance in Women without Type 2 Diabetes

Table 3

Mean differences in insulin resistance [HOMA] across the very lean meat [VLM] category, without and with means adjusted for the potential confounders.

Variable controlledVery Lean Meat Exchange Group ]
Low VLM intakeModerate VLM intakeHigh VLM intake
1st quartile]2nd-3rd quartiles]4th quartile]

Energy from carbohydrate 1.761.571.581.40.2362
Energy from protein1.811.581.502.40.1261
Energy from fat1.741.561.610.80.3755
Total energy intake1.701.551.670.10.7571
Starch exchanges1.761.551.611.10.2874
Sweets exchanges1.781.551.591.50.2238
Fruit exchanges1.751.561.601.10.3013
Vegetable exchanges1.751.551.610.90.3359
Dairy exchanges1.741.561.620.70.4036
Meat exchanges1.751.561.601.00.3286
Fat exchanges1.751.561.610.80.3815
Body fat percentage1.751.561.611.20.2830
Physical activity1.751.561.601.00.3285
Model 11.731.551.640.50.4833
Model 21.711.551.620.40.5432

Means on the same row as a potential confounding variable have been adjusted statistically for that variable.
For the very lean meat [VLM] exchange categories, low VLM intake included women in the 1st quartile, daily servings per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal], 0.00–0.32, moderate VLM exchange included women in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles, daily servings per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal], 0.33–1.04, and the high VLM exchange category included women in the 4th quartile, daily servings per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal], 1.05–6.73.
Each of the exchange variables was calculated as servings per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal].
Model 1 includes the following covariates: age, education, body fat percentage, total PA, and servings of the following exchanges per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal], starch, sweets, fruit, nonstarchy vegetables, dairy, meat, and dietary fat.
Model 2 employed the same covariates as Model 1, except that body fat percentage was not included.

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