Journal of Diabetes Research / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Meat Intake and Insulin Resistance in Women without Type 2 Diabetes

Table 4

Odds of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR ≥ 75th percentile] in women with low meat or low VLM intake compared to women with moderate to high intake.

Outcome: HOMA [≥75th percentile]Meat intake per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal] VLM intake per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal]
Low versus all others []Low versus all others []
Variable controlledOR95% CIOR95% CI

None 0.330.16–0.711.150.63–2.10
Age 0.330.15–0.701.150.63–2.09
Education 0.330.16–0.701.160.63–2.13
Percent of energy from carbohydrate0.330.15–0.741.190.65–2.18
Percent of energy from protein 0.340.16–0.721.250.66–2.35
Percent of energy from fat0.330.15–0.721.130.62–2.07
Total energy intake 0.320.15–0.700.950.50–1.78
Starch exchanges0.300.14–0.651.180.65–2.16
Sweets exchanges0.330.15–0.701.220.66–2.25
Fruit exchanges0.340.16–0.741.160.63–2.11
Vegetable exchanges0.330.16–0.711.150.63–2.10
Dairy exchanges0.320.15–0.691.140.62–2.07
VLM exchanges0.340.16–0.72
Meat exchanges1.150.63–2.10
Fat exchanges 0.340.16–0.731.110.61–2.04
BMI 0.450.20––2.32
Body fat percentage 0.470.21––2.10
Physical activity 0.330.16–0.711.150.63–2.10
Full Model 10.380.16–0.900.990.47–2.10
Full Model 20.340.14–0.830.930.43–2.01

All dietary exchange variables were calculated as servings per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal].
OR: odds ratio; odds of having insulin resistance [HOMA ≥ 75th percentile].
95% CI = 95% confidence interval.
“Low” included women in the lowest or 1st quartile of consumption, whereas “all others” included women in the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th quartile of meat consumption or VLM intake [very lean meat], those with a moderate or high number of exchanges.
Odds ratios on the same line as a potential confounding variable were adjusted for differences in that covariate.
Full Model 1 included the following covariates: age, education, percent of energy from fat, percent of energy from protein, BMI, number of exchanges per 4186 kJ [1000 kcal] from starch, sweets, fruit, nonstarchy vegetables, dairy, fat, VLM [very lean meats], or meats [depending on the predictor], and objectively measured physical activity.
Full Model 2 included all of the covariates of Model 1 and also body fat percentage.

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