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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 175204, 7 pages
Clinical Study

Vinegar Consumption Increases Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake by the Forearm Muscle in Humans with Type 2 Diabetes

1Hellenic National Center for Research, Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications (HNDC), 3 Ploutarchou Street, 10675 Athens, Greece
22nd Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, Athens University Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, 1 Rimini Street, 12462 Haidari, Greece
3Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, NTUA, Heroon Polytechniou 5-9, 15780 Athens, Greece

Received 30 December 2014; Accepted 7 April 2015

Academic Editor: Brunella Capaldo

Copyright © 2015 Panayota Mitrou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background and Aims. Vinegar has been shown to have a glucose-lowering effect in patients with glucose abnormalities. However, the mechanisms of this effect are still obscure. The aim of this randomised, crossover study was to investigate the effect of vinegar on glucose metabolism in muscle which is the most important tissue for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Materials and Methods. Eleven subjects with DM2 consumed vinegar or placebo (at random order on two separate days, a week apart), before a mixed meal. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and glycerol were measured preprandially and at 30–60 min for 300 min postprandially from the radial artery and from a forearm vein. Muscle blood flow was measured with strain-gauge plethysmography. Glucose uptake was calculated as the arteriovenous difference of glucose multiplied by blood flow. Results. Vinegar compared to placebo (1) increased forearm glucose uptake , (2) decreased plasma glucose (), insulin , and triglycerides , and (3) did not change NEFA and glycerol. Conclusions. In DM2 vinegar reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and hypertriglyceridaemia without affecting lipolysis. Vinegar’s effect on carbohydrate metabolism may be partly accounted for by an increase in glucose uptake, demonstrating an improvement in insulin action in skeletal muscle. This trial is registered with NCT02309424.