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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 268390, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/268390
Review Article

Diabetic Foot Syndrome as a Possible Cardiovascular Marker in Diabetic Patients

Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, U.O.C di Medicina Interna e Cardioangiologia, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza delle Cliniche, No. 2, 90127 Palermo, Italy

Received 10 December 2014; Accepted 18 March 2015

Academic Editor: Shi Fang Yan

Copyright © 2015 Antonino Tuttolomondo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality; in fact, some authors showed a higher prevalence of major, previous and new-onset, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot ulcers than in those without these complications. This is consistent with the fact that in diabetes there is a complex interplay of several variables with inflammatory metabolic disorders and their effect on the cardiovascular system that could explain previous reports of high morbidity and mortality rates in diabetic patients with amputations. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the “adipovascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with diabetic foot, this “adipovascular axis” expression in lower plasma levels of adiponectin and higher plasma levels of IL-6 could be linked to foot ulcers pathogenesis by microvascular and inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to focus on the immune inflammatory features of DFS and its possible role as a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients.