Table 2: Characteristics of women who received an adequate number of retinal examinations versus those who did not ().

Adequate number of retinal examinationsInadequate number of retinal examinations value

(%)185 (60.3%)122 (39.7%)
Type 1 diabetes134 (72.4%)74 (60.7%)
Type 2 diabetes51 (27.6%)48 (39.3%)
Age (years)32.9 ± 5.331.5 ± 5.40.02
Gravida2.4 ± 1.52.8 ± 2.20.16
Parity0.9 ± 1.11.0 ± 1.30.13
Caucasian174 (94.1%)104 (85.2%)0.01
Diabetes duration (years)11.28 ± 5.689.25 ± 5.770.007
Nonsmokers158 (85.4%)110 (90.2%)0.29
Attendance at prepregnancy care108 (58.4%)21 (17.2%)<0.001
Folic acid129 (69.7%)66 (54.1%)0.001
1st trimester HbA1c % (mmol/mol)7.20 ± 1.48 (55.0 ± 4.5)7.06 ± 1.63 (54.0 ± 4.6)0.47
3rd trimester HbA1c % (mmol/mol)6.28 ± 0.88 (45.0 ± 2.6)6.37 ± 0.96 (46.0 ± 2.9)0.43
Years 2006–200848 (25.9%)84 (68.9%)
Years 2009–2012137 (74.1%)38 (31.1%)

Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), number of patients, and % of group.