Table 4: Women who received appropriate screening (). Characteristics of those who demonstrated retinopathy progression compared with those who did not.

No progressionProgression value

(%)137 (74.1%)48 (25.9%)
Diabetes type 192 (67.2%)42 (87.5%)
Diabetes type 245 (32.8%)6 (12.5%)
Age (years)32.64 ± 5.3533.60 ± 5.150.28
Caucasian ethnicity128 (93.4%)46 (95.8%)0.54
Parity0.99 ± 1.160.73 ± 1.050.09
Gravida2.44 ± 1.542.21 ± 1.530.17
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.78 ± 6.3227.50 ± 5.300.35
Prepregnancy care82 (59.9%)26 (54.2%)0.49
Folic acid97 (70.8%)32 (66.7%)0.59
Diabetes duration (years)9.79 ± 8.3614.43 ± 8.42<0.001
Excessive weight gain in pregnancy76 (55.5%)29 (60.4%)0.88
1st trimester 7.03 ± 1.397.67 ± 1.620.01
HbA1c (%) (53.0 ± 4.2) (60.0 ± 4.9)
3rd trimester 6.27 ± 0.936.29 ± 0.700.89
HbA1c (%) (45.0 ± 2.8) (45.0 ± 2.1)
Change in HbA1c between 1st and 3rd trimester (%)0.74 ± 0.90 (9.6 ± 11.7)1.38 ± 1.33 (17.9 ± 17.3)0.004
Preeclampsia17 (12.4%)7 (14.6%)0.80
Systolic blood pressure at booking (mmHg)122.1 ± 13.0128.6 ± 18.00.03
Diastolic blood pressure at booking (mmHg)72.89 ± 10.376.0 ± 9.40.73
Nonsmoker118 (86.1%)40 (83.4%)0.63
Baseline retinal findings
 R0 (no retinopathy)82 (59.9%)32 (66.7%)
 R1 (background)33 (24.1%)9 (18.8%)
 R2 (preproliferative)6 (4.4%)4 (8.3%)
 R3 (proliferative)10 (7.3%)0 (0%)
 Maculopathy6 (4.4%)3 (6.3%)

Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), number of patients, and % of group.