Research Article

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with the Presence and Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Table 2

Multivariate analysis for the association of the status of retinopathy and 25(OH)D. The relevant parameters and values from the linear and logistic regression models to evaluate the concentrations of 25(OH)D and the presence of vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D <15 ng/mL) are shown. For qualitative variables, the category in the model is provided. The reference categories are no retinopathy, Caucasian, Winter and sedentary for patient group, race, season, and physical activity, respectively.

Linear model 25(OH)D concentration Logistic model deficiency (25(OH)D <15 ng/mL)
Beta (SE) valueBeta (SE) value

Intercept20.52 (5.17)−0.73 (1.49)
Patient group (retinopathy)10.36 (4.98)0.04−3.76 (1.44)0.009
Creatinine2.53 (4.25)0.55−1.76 (1.33)0.19
Ethnicity (non-Caucasian)−5.07 (2.67)0.051.94 (0.74)0.009
Body mass index−0.26 (0.10)0.0090.08 (0.03)0.004
Season (autumn)3.21 (1.68)0.05−0.74 (0.42)0.08
Season (spring)5.03 (1.64)0.002−1.03 (0.42)0.02
Season (summer)8.04 (1.59)<0.00001−2.09 (0.46)<0.00001
Physical activity (active)2.21 (1.04)0.03−0.87 (0.30)0.004
Interaction group creatinine−13.32 (6.03)0.035.17 (1.77)0.003

25(OH)D: 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3; SE: standard error.