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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 648239, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/648239
Review Article

Differential Effects of Leptin and Adiponectin in Endothelial Angiogenesis

1Division of Translational and Systems Medicine-Metabolic and Vascular Health, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham B9 5SS, UK

Received 17 November 2014; Accepted 22 December 2014

Academic Editor: Francis M. Finucane

Copyright © 2015 Raghu Adya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity is a major health burden with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Endothelial dysfunction is pivotal to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In relation to this, adipose tissue secreted factors termed “adipokines” have been reported to modulate endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on two of the most abundant circulating adipokines, that is, leptin and adiponectin, in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Leptin has been documented to influence a multitude of organ systems, that is, central nervous system (appetite regulation, satiety factor) and cardiovascular system (endothelial dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis). Adiponectin, circulating at a much higher concentration, exists in different molecular weight forms, essentially made up of the collagenous fraction and a globular domain, the latter being investigated minimally for its involvement in proinflammatory processes including activation of NF-κβ and endothelial adhesion molecules. The opposing actions of the two forms of adiponectin in endothelial cells have been recently demonstrated. Additionally, a local and systemic change to multimeric forms of adiponectin has gained importance. Thus detailed investigations on the potential interplay between these adipokines would likely result in better understanding of the missing links connecting CVD, adipokines, and obesity.