Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 789359, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/789359
Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Two Venous Sampling Techniques for the Assessment of Pancreatic Insulin and Zinc Release upon Glucose Challenge

1Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
2Animal Resources Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
3Departments of Internal Medicine and Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
4Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA

Received 19 April 2015; Revised 11 July 2015; Accepted 12 July 2015

Academic Editor: Hiroshi Okamoto

Copyright © 2015 Anil Kumar Pillai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Video File 1 Transhepatic portal venous access, ultrasound guided long axis method: The probe and the needle are placed side by side. The portal vein (dark echo void rounded structure) is almost 15 cm deep (the distance markers are on the left side of the screen, long markers every 5 cm and short markers every 1 cm from the skin). The needle is seen traversing the liver parenchyma towards the portal vein on the right side of the screen as an echogenic moving spot. Note, the beam follows a sector pattern and the needle is kept within the beam. During respiratory moments the needle will move in and out of plane. The operator adjusts the needle by minor cranio-caudal and medio-lateral deflections to keep the needle in plane while advancing the tip towards the portal vein. Contrast injection confirms portal vein access.

Video File 2 Transplenic splenic vein access: First needle is passed into the splenic parenchyma. Contrast injected through this needle to opacify the splenic parenchyma with reflux into the splenic vein. Targeting the opacified splenic vein, a second needle is advanced in this plane. The needle is observed on real time fluoroscopy as it passed into the target. The needle tip is then confirmed to be within the targeted splenic vein in all projections by rotating the C arm while observing it’s relation to the opacified splenic vein on live fluoroscopy. If the tip is too deep or too shallow, appropriate needle adjustments are performed. Contrast injection confirms splenic vein access.

  1. Supplementary Videos