Table 1: Comparison of clinical data of study participants with type 1 and 2 diabetes according to the presence or absence of neuropathy defined by the Toronto criteria. Data are medians (5th percentile, 95th percentile), values are derived from a Mann-Whitney test.

VariablesDiabetes without neuropathyDiabetes with neuropathy value

Demographic measures
6446
Age45 (21, 71)62 (44, 75)<0.0001
Diabetes duration (years)19 (3, 48)40 (8, 58)<0.0001
Gender (male/female)39/2533/13
Type of diabetes (I/II)52/1232/14
HbA1c % [mmol/mol]7.6 (6.9, 8.4) [60 (51, 68)]8.6 (8, 9.2) [69 (59, 77)]0.006
BMI (kg/m2)26.0 (21, 38)29.0 (21, 38)0.09
Systolic BP (mmHg)123 (99, 154)140 (108, 169)0.004
Diastolic BP (mmHg)67 (56, 78)67 (56, 83)0.9
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.2 (2.9, 6.9)3.8 (2.7, 6)0.17
Triglyceride (mmol/L)1 (0.5, 2)1.1 (0.4, 2.9)0.4

Large fibre assessments
NDS 0.5 (0, 5)5.5 (3, 10)<0.0001
VPT (V)6.3 (3, 19)21.8 (8, 41)<0.0001
SNAP (μV)13 (4.6, 28)4.9 (0.4, 19)<0.0001
SNCV (m/s)43.8 (40, 51.9)39.5 (27, 45.7) <0.0001
PMNAP (μV)4.6 (1, 7.6)1.8 (0.1, 5)<0.0001
PMNCV (m/s)44.1
(39.1, 49.1)
39.3 (19, 45) <0.0001

Small fibre assessments
IENFD (no./mm)6.8 (0.5, 13.5)3.5 (0.3, 15.3) <0.0001
CNFD (no./mm2)30.0
(15.6, 43.8)
21.4
(6.3, 36.5)
0.005
CNBD (no./mm2)90.1
(21.9, 214)
62.5
(3.1, 220.3)
0.1
CNFL (mm/mm2)25.0
(12.8, 33.5)
19.6
(4.6, 34.0)
0.03
DB-HRV (beats per min)25 (6, 45)10 (4, 39)0.002
WPT (°C)38.5
(34.7, 46.7)
42.0
(36.3, 49.8)
<0.0001
Neuropad (%)61.5 (0, 99)18.0 (0, 99) 0.01