Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 916585, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/916585
Review Article

Estrogen: An Emerging Regulator of Insulin Action and Mitochondrial Function

1Bioenergetics Laboratory, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2Atherosclerosis & Lipoprotein Research, Methodist DeBakey Heart and Vascular Institute, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3Houston Methodist Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6550 Fannin, Suite 1001, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Received 31 December 2014; Accepted 10 March 2015

Academic Editor: Eirik Søfteland

Copyright © 2015 Anisha A. Gupte et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Clinical trials and animal studies have revealed that loss of circulating estrogen induces rapid changes in whole body metabolism, fat distribution, and insulin action. The metabolic effects of estrogen are mediated primarily by its receptor, estrogen receptor-α; however, the detailed understanding of its mechanisms is incomplete. Recent investigations suggest that estrogen receptor-α elicits the metabolic effects of estrogen by genomic, nongenomic, and mitochondrial mechanisms that regulate insulin signaling, substrate oxidation, and energetics. This paper reviews clinical and experimental studies on the mechanisms of estrogen and the current state of knowledge regarding physiological and pathobiological influences of estrogen on metabolism.