Journal of Diabetes Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Association between Self-Reported Habitual Snoring and Diabetes Mellitus: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Table 1

Characteristics of included studies in this meta-analysis.

First author
CountrySource and study typeSample sizeFemale (%)Age rangeOR or RR (95% CI)Adjusted variables

2012 [17]
652248.820–851.44 (1.16–1.79)Age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, BMI, depression, SBP, CRP, and TC
2009 [18]
790551.225–79Female: 1.58 (1.02–2.44)
Male: 0.92 (0.64–1.33)
Smoking, age, BMI, and waist circumference
2005 [19]
59358.761–631.93 (1.04–3.57)Age, weight gain, smoking, alcohol dependence, and physical inactivity
2004 [20]
18907820–651.31 (0.95–1.81)
Female: 1.62 (1.11–2.36)
Male: 0.81 (0.45–1.50)
Age, sex, and BMI
2007 [21]
6779100%20–99No EDS: 1.36 (0.87–2.13)
EDS: 1.82 (0.97–3.43)
Age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, and alcohol dependency
1996 [22]
520157%≥65Women: 1.34 (0.10–1.65)Age and being married
2002 [23]
Prospective cohort
69852100%40–651.63 (1.29–2.07)Age, high TC, high BP, smoking, BMI, physical activity, alcohol use, postmenopausal hormone use, family history of diabetes, sleeping position, sleep time, years of shift-work, and WHR
2000 [1]
Prospective cohort
25040%30–69Nonobese: 1.06 (0.36–3.1)
Obese: 7.0 (2.9–16.9)
Age, weight gain, smoking, alcohol dependence, and physical inactivity


Definition of snoring Assessment/definition of DMPresence of comorbiditiesNOS score

Questionnaire answer: never or rare, occasionally as nonhabitual snorers; frequently as habitual snorersSerum glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL after fasting for a minimum of 8 hours, a plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL for those who fasted <8 hours or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, a self-reported DM or current use of oral hypoglycemic medication or insulin(—)7
Questionnaire answer: always or often as habitual snorers; sometimes, never, or almost never as nonhabitual snorersQuestionnaire answer: ‘‘Do you suffer from DM?”(—)8
Questionnaire answer: those who reported snoring every or almost every night were classified as habitual snorersPreviously diagnosed DM, OGTT according to WHO criteria in 1998(—)7
Questionnaire answer: occasional or habitual as habitual snorersPreviously diagnosed DM, OGTT according to WHO criteria in 1998Hypertension, hyperlipidemia7
Questionnaire answer: how often they snored using a five-point scale; snoring was defined as a score of 3–5Questionnaire answer: ‘‘Do you have diabetes?’’ and/or attended regular medical examinations for diabetes Hypertension7
Questionnaire answer: yes or no or don’t know; yes as habitual snorersHistory of DM, current use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medication, fasting glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL, or 2-hour postload glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL.Hypertension, carotid disease, and arthritis7
Questionnaire answer: regularly as habitual snorers; occasionally or never Classic symptoms associated with an elevated plasma glucose level or no symptoms, but at least two elevated plasma glucose values on different occasions; or treatment with hypoglycemic medication (—)8
Questionnaire answer: a five-point scale: ≥4 was defined as habitual snorers; ≦3 was defined as nonhabitual snorersQuestionnaire: self-report DM or confirmed by medical records(—)8

OR, odds ratio; RR, risk ratio; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; CRP, C reactive protein; TC, cholesterol; BP, blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; WHO, World Health Organization; NOS: Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Note: a means studies report OR, while b means study reports RR.

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