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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 2372741, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2372741
Research Article

Training Does Not Alter Muscle Ceramide and Diacylglycerol in Offsprings of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Despite Improved Insulin Sensitivity

1Xlab, Centre of Healthy Aging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
2Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes M, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus, Denmark
3Department of Internal Medicine, Regional Hospital Viborg, Viborg, Denmark
4Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
5Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

Received 31 May 2016; Revised 6 September 2016; Accepted 8 September 2016

Academic Editor: Konstantinos Kantartzis

Copyright © 2016 Ditte Søgaard et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) may be involved in the early phase of insulin resistance but data are inconsistent in man. We evaluated if an increase in insulin sensitivity after endurance training was accompanied by changes in these lipids in skeletal muscle. Nineteen first-degree type 2 diabetes Offsprings (Offsprings) (age:  yrs; BMI:  kg/m2) and sixteen matched Controls (age:  yrs; BMI:  kg/m2) performed 10 weeks of endurance training three times a week at 70% of VO2max on a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the intervention a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and VO2max test were performed and muscle biopsies obtained. Insulin sensitivity was significantly lower in Offsprings compared to control subjects () but improved in both groups after 10 weeks of endurance training (Off: %; Con: %, ). The content of muscle ceramide, DAG, and their subspecies were similar between groups and did not change in response to the endurance training except for an overall reduction in C22:0-Cer (). Finally, the intervention induced an increase in AKT protein expression (Off: %; Con: %, ). This study showed no relation between insulin sensitivity and ceramide or DAG content suggesting that ceramide and DAG are not major players in the early phase of insulin resistance in human muscle.