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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 2614153, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2614153
Research Article

Elevated Levels of Plasma IgA Autoantibodies against Oxidized LDL Found in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy but Not in Nonproliferative Retinopathy

1PEDEGO Research Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Research Center (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Research Unit of Biomedicine, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Received 8 September 2016; Revised 10 November 2016; Accepted 28 November 2016

Academic Editor: Kai Kaarniranta

Copyright © 2016 Satu Vavuli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aims. This study investigated the association of autoantibodies binding to oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods. Plasma from 229 types 1 and 2 patients with DR including diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was analysed with ELISA-based assay to determine IgA, IgG, and IgM autoantibody levels binding to oxLDL. The controls were 106 diabetic patients without retinopathy (NoDR) and 139 nondiabetic controls (C). Results. PDR group had significantly higher IgA autoantibody levels than DME or NoDR: mean 94.9 (SD 54.7) for PDR, 75.5 (41.8) for DME (), and 76.1 (48.2) for NoDR (). There were no differences in IgG, IgM, or IgA that would be specific for DR or for DME. Type 2 diabetic patients had higher levels of IgA autoantibodies than type 1 diabetic patients (86.0 and 65.5, resp., ) and the highest levels in IgA were found in type 2 diabetic patients with PDR (119.1, ). Conclusions. IgA autoantibodies were increased in PDR, especially in type 2 diabetes. The high levels of IgA in PDR, and especially in type 2 PDR patients, reflect the inflammatory process and enlighten the role of oxLDL and its autoantibodies in PDR.