Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 2868652, 33 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2868652
Review Article

Influence of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Glucose Uptake

1Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
3Department Fitness and Health, University Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany
4Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany

Received 23 November 2015; Revised 31 January 2016; Accepted 3 February 2016

Academic Editor: Thomas J. Hawke

Copyright © 2016 Martin Röhling et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. V. Ardisson Korat, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu, “Diet, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a review from the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study 2, and Health Professionals' Follow-up study,” Current Nutrition Reports, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 345–354, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. R. Ringseis, K. Eder, F. C. Mooren, and K. Krüger, “Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 21, pp. 58–68, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  3. Y. Hayashino, J. L. Jackson, T. Hirata et al., “Effects of exercise on C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokine and adipokine in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Metabolism, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 431–440, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. J. Henriksen, “Invited review: effects of acute exercise and exercise training on insulin resistance,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 788–796, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. K. Martin, A. Katz, and J. Wahren, “Splanchnic and muscle metabolism during exercise in NIDDM patients,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 269, no. 3, pp. E583–E590, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. C. F. Passos and M. C. Gonçalves, “Regulation of insulin sensitivity by adiponectin and its receptors in response to physical exercise,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 603–608, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J.-A. Simoneau, J. H. Veerkamp, L. P. Turcotte, and D. E. Kelley, “Markers of capacity to utilize fatty acids in human skeletal muscle: relation to insulin resistance and obesity and effects of weight loss,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 2051–2060, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Egan and J. R. Zierath, “Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 162–184, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. E. Gosselin, K. F. Kozlowski, L. Devinney-Boymel, and C. Hambridge, “Metabolic response of different high-intensity aerobic interval exercise protocols,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2866–2871, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. R. Silva, G. P. Nassis, and A. Rebelo, “Strength training in soccer with a specific focus on highly trained players,” Sports Medicine—Open, vol. 1, article 17, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. P. D. Thompson, S. F. Crouse, B. Goodpaster, D. Kelley, N. Moyna, and L. Pescatello, “The acute versus the chronic response to exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. S438–S445, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Cusi, K. Maezono, A. Osman et al., “Insulin resistance differentially affects the PI 3-kinase- and MAP kinase-mediated signaling in human muscle,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 311–320, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Perseghin, T. B. Price, K. F. Petersen et al., “Increased glucose transport-phosphorylation and muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise training in insulin-resistant subjects,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 18, pp. 1357–1362, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. P. Kirwan, L. F. del Aguila, J. M. Hernandez et al., “Regular exercise enhances insulin activation of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase in human skeletal muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 797–803, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. F. Howlett, K. Sakamoto, H. Yu, L. J. Goodyear, and M. Hargreaves, “Insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate-2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is enhanced in human skeletal muscle after exercise,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1046–1052, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Deshmukh, V. G. Coffey, Z. Zhong, A. V. Chibalin, J. A. Hawley, and J. R. Zierath, “Exercise-induced phosphorylation of the novel Akt substrates AS160 and filamin A in human skeletal muscle,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1776–1782, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. L. Treadway, D. E. James, E. Burcel, and N. B. Ruderman, “Effect of exercise on insulin receptor binding and kinase activity in skeletal muscle,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 256, no. 1, pp. E138–E144, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. J. Goodyear, F. Giorgino, T. W. Balon, G. Condorelli, and R. J. Smith, “Effects of contractile activity on tyrosine phosphoproteins and PI 3-kinase activity in rat skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 268, no. 5, pp. 987–995, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. J. O'Gorman, H. K. R. Karlsson, S. McQuaid et al., “Exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and GLUT4 (SLC2A4) protein content in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2983–2992, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. D. Wadley, N. Konstantopoulos, L. Macaulay et al., “Increased insulin-stimulated Akt pSer473 and cytosolic SHP2 protein abundance in human skeletal muscle following acute exercise and short-term training,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1624–1631, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. F. P. Wojtaszewski, B. F. Hansen, J. Gade et al., “Insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity after exercise in human skeletal muscle,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 325–331, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Frøsig and E. A. Richter, “Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise: focus on insulin signaling,” Obesity, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. S15–S20, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. E. Kemp, K. I. Mitchelhill, D. Stapleton, B. J. Michell, Z.-P. Chen, and L. A. Witters, “Dealing with energy demand: the AMP-activated protein kinase,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 22–25, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Musi, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman et al., “AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes during exercise,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 921–927, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Sriwijitkamol, D. K. Coletta, E. Wajcberg et al., “Effect of acute exercise on AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes: a time-course and dose-response study,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 836–848, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Benziane, T. J. Burton, B. Scanlan et al., “Divergent cell signaling after short-term intensified endurance training in human skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 295, no. 6, pp. E1427–E1438, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Egan, B. P. Carson, P. M. Garcia-Roves et al., “Exercise intensity-dependent regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α mRNA abundance is associated with differential activation of upstream signalling kinases in human skeletal muscle,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 588, no. 10, pp. 1779–1790, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. J. Gibala, S. L. McGee, A. P. Garnham, K. F. Howlett, R. J. Snow, and M. Hargreaves, “Brief intense interval exercise activates AMPK and p38 MAPK signaling and increases the expression of PGC-1α in human skeletal muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 929–934, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Vissing, S. L. McGee, J. Farup, T. Kjølhede, M. H. Vendelbo, and N. Jessen, “Differentiated mTOR but not AMPK signaling after strength vs endurance exercise in training-accustomed individuals,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 355–366, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Luo, A.-M. Lu, Y. Wang et al., “Chronic resistance training activates autophagy and reduces apoptosis of muscle cells by modulating IGF-1 and its receptors, Akt/mTOR and Akt/FOXO3a signaling in aged rats,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 427–436, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. C. Calegari, C. C. Zoppi, L. F. Rezende, L. R. Silveira, E. M. Carneiro, and A. C. Boschero, “Endurance training activates AMP-activated protein kinase, increases expression of uncoupling protein 2 and reduces insulin secretion from rat pancreatic islets,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 208, no. 3, pp. 257–264, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. I. Stanford and L. J. Goodyear, “Exercise and type 2 diabetes: molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake in skeletal muscle,” Advances in Physiology Education, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 308–314, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. D. Nitert, T. Dayeh, P. Volkov et al., “Impact of an exercise intervention on DNA methylation in skeletal muscle from first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 3322–3332, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. J. Rose, B. Kiens, and E. A. Richter, “Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase expression and signalling in skeletal muscle during exercise,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 574, no. 3, pp. 889–903, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Combes, J. Dekerle, N. Webborn, P. Watt, V. Bougault, and F. N. Daussin, “Exerciseinduced metabolic fluctuations influence AMPK, p38MAPK and CaMKII phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle,” Physiological Reports, vol. 3, Article ID e12462, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. A. Katta, S. Kakarla, M. Wu et al., “Altered regulation of contraction-induced Akt/mTOR/p70S6k pathway signaling in skeletal muscle of the obese Zucker rat,” Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 2009, Article ID 384683, 9 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Philp, D. L. Hamilton, and K. Baar, “Signals mediating skeletal muscle remodeling by resistance exercise: PI3-kinase independent activation of mTORC1,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 561–568, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. C. A. Stuart, M. E. A. Howell, J. D. Baker et al., “Cycle training increased glut4 and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin in fast twitch muscle fibers,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 96–106, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. M. Camera, J. Edge, M. J. Short, J. A. Hawley, and V. G. Coffey, “Early time course of akt phosphorylation after endurance and resistance exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1843–1852, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. C. Dreyer, S. Fujita, J. G. Cadenas, D. L. Chinkes, E. Volpi, and B. B. Rasmussen, “Resistance exercise increases AMPK activity and reduces 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 576, no. 2, pp. 613–624, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. M. Thomson, C. A. Fick, and S. E. Gordon, “AMPK activation attenuates S6K1, 4E-BP1, and eEF2 signaling responses to high-frequency electrically stimulated skeletal muscle contractions,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 625–632, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Inoki, H. Ouyang, T. Zhu et al., “TSC2 integrates Wnt and energy signals via a coordinated phosphorylation by AMPK and GSK3 to regulate cell growth,” Cell, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 955–968, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Mascher, B. Ekblom, O. Rooyackers, and E. Blomstrand, “Enhanced rates of muscle protein synthesis and elevated mTOR signalling following endurance exercise in human subjects,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 175–184, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Fujita, B. B. Rasmussen, J. G. Cadenas et al., “Aerobic exercise overcomes the age-related insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism by improving endothelial function and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1615–1622, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. K. Pugh, S. H. Faulkner, A. P. Jackson, J. A. King, and M. A. Nimmo, “Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle,” Physiological Reports, vol. 3, no. 4, Article ID e12364, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. B. A. Edgett, M. L. Fortner, A. Bonen, and B. J. Gurd, “Mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is up-regulated by both acute endurance exercise and chronic muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 862–869, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. J. Maarbjerg, L. Sylow, and E. A. Richter, “Current understanding of increased insulin sensitivity after exercise—emerging candidates,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 202, no. 3, pp. 323–335, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Sylow, M. Kleinert, C. Pehmøller et al., “Akt and Rac1 signaling are jointly required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and downregulated in insulin resistance,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 323–331, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. M. Castorena, E. B. Arias, N. Sharma, and G. D. Cartee, “Postexercise improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurs concomitant with greater AS160 phosphorylation in muscle from normal and insulin-resistant rats,” Diabetes, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 2297–2308, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. Sakamoto, M. F. Hirshman, W. G. Aschenbach, and L. J. Goodyear, “Contraction regulation of Akt in rat skeletal muscle,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 14, pp. 11910–11917, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. F. P. Wojtaszewski, Y. Higaki, M. F. Hirshman et al., “Exercise modulates postreceptor insulin signaling and glucose transport in muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 1257–1264, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. A. Consitt, J. Van Meter, C. A. Newton et al., “Impairments in site-specific AS160 phosphorylation and effects of exercise training,” Diabetes, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 3437–3447, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I. R. Ritchie, D. C. Wright, and D. J. Dyck, “Adiponectin is not required for exercise training-induced improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance in mice,” Physiological Reports, vol. 2, no. 9, Article ID e12146, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. M. H. Vendelbo, A. B. Møller, J. T. Treebak et al., “Sustained AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylations in human skeletal muscle 30 min after a single bout of exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. T. Treebak, J. B. Birk, A. J. Rose, B. Kiens, E. A. Richter, and J. F. P. Wojtaszewski, “AS160 phosphorylation is associated with activation of α 2β2γ1- but not α 2β2γ3-AMPK trimeric complex in skeletal muscle during exercise in humans,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 292, no. 3, pp. E715–E722, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. T. Treebak, C. Frøsig, C. Pehmøller et al., “Potential role of TBC1D4 in enhanced post-exercise insulin action in human skeletal muscle,” Diabetologia, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 891–900, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. D. Bruss, E. B. Arias, G. E. Lienhard, and G. D. Cartee, “Increased phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) in rat skeletal muscle in response to insulin or contractile activity,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Sylow, L. L. Møller, M. Kleinert, E. A. Richter, and T. E. Jensen, “Rac1—a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 1574–1580, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. L. Sylow, T. E. Jensen, M. Kleinert et al., “Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle,” Diabetes, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1139–1151, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. Sylow, L. L. V. Møller, M. Kleinert, E. A. Richter, and T. E. Jensen, “Stretch-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is regulated by Rac1,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 593, no. 3, pp. 645–656, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. N. Kawanishi, H. Yano, Y. Yokogawa, and K. Suzuki, “Exercise training inhibits inflammation in adipose tissue via both suppression of macrophage infiltration and acceleration of phenotypic switching from M1 to M2 macrophages in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice,” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 16, pp. 105–118, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. Kawanishi, T. Mizokami, H. Yano, and K. Suzuki, “Exercise attenuates M1 macrophages and CD8+ T cells in the adipose tissue of obese mice,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1684–1693, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Sriwijitkamol, C. Christ-Roberts, R. Berria et al., “Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of κBβ content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 760–767, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. I. Lancaster, Q. Khan, P. Drysdale et al., “The physiological regulation of toll-like receptor expression and function in humans,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 563, no. 3, pp. 945–955, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Oliveira and M. Gleeson, “The influence of prolonged cycling on monocyte Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in healthy men,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 251–257, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. Rodriguez-Miguelez, R. Fernandez-Gonzalo, M. Almar et al., “Role of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways on the inflammatory response to resistance training in elderly subjects,” Age, vol. 36, article 9734, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. da Luz, M. J. S. Frederico, S. da Silva et al., “Endurance exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance and reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obese rats,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 2015–2023, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. Medeiros, M. J. Frederico, G. da Luz et al., “Exercise training reduces insulin resistance and upregulates the mTOR/p70S6k pathway in cardiac muscle of diet-induced obesity rats,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 226, no. 3, pp. 666–674, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. G. Oliveira, B. M. Carvalho, N. Tobar et al., “Physical exercise reduces circulating lipopolysaccharide and TLR4 activation and improves insulin signaling in tissues of DIO rats,” Diabetes, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 784–796, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. Lyngsø, L. Simonsen, and J. Bülow, “Interleukin-6 production in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: the effect of exercise,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 543, no. 1, pp. 373–378, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. P. Fischer, “Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance?” Exercise Immunology Review, vol. 12, pp. 6–33, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. Ostrowski, T. Rohde, M. Zacho, S. Asp, and B. K. Pedersen, “Evidence that interleukin-6 is produced in human skeletal muscle during prolonged running,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 508, no. 3, pp. 949–953, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Leggate, M. A. Nowell, S. A. Jones, and M. A. Nimmo, “The response of interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor isoforms following intermittent high intensity and continuous moderate intensity cycling,” Cell Stress and Chaperones, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 827–833, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. Castellani, C. G. Perry, R. E. MacPherson et al., “Exercise-mediated IL-6 signaling occurs independent of inflammation and is amplified by training in mouse adipose tissue,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 119, pp. 1347–1354, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. R. E. Macpherson, J. S. Huber, S. Frendo-Cumbo, J. A. Simpson, and D. C. Wright, “Adipose tissue insulin action and IL-6 signaling after exercise in obese mice,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 2034–2042, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. M. W. Petersen and B. K. Pedersen, “The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1154–1162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. E. Hopps, B. Canino, and G. Caimi, “Effects of exercise on inflammation markers in type 2 diabetic subjects,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 183–189, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. P. Kadoglou, D. Perrea, F. Iliadis, N. Angelopoulou, C. Liapis, and M. Alevizos, “Exercise reduces resistin and inflammatory cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 719–721, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. L. Leick, B. Lindegaard, D. Stensvold, P. Plomgaard, B. Saltin, and H. Pilegaard, “Adipose tissue interleukin-18 mRNA and plasma interleukin-18: effect of obesity and exercise,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 356–363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. Mardare, K. Krüger, G. Liebisch et al., “Endurance and resistance training affect high fat diet-induced increase of ceramides, inflammasome expression, and systemic inflammation in mice,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2016, Article ID 4536470, 13 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. M. Whitham, M. H. S. Chan, M. Pal et al., “Contraction-induced interleukin-6 gene transcription in skeletal muscle is regulated by c-Jun terminal kinase/activator protein-1,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 287, no. 14, pp. 10771–10779, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. D. Aronson, M. D. Boppart, S. D. Dufresne, R. A. Fielding, and L. J. Goodyear, “Exercise stimulates c-Jun NH2 kinase activity and c-Jun transcriptional activity in human skeletal muscle,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 251, no. 1, pp. 106–110, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. D. Boppart, S. Asp, J. F. P. Wojtaszewski, R. A. Fielding, T. Mohr, and L. J. Goodyear, “Marathon running transiently increases c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38γ activities in human skeletal muscle,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 526, no. 3, pp. 663–669, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. J. Galpin, A. C. Fry, L. Z. F. Chiu, D. B. Thomason, and B. K. Schilling, “High-power resistance exercise induces MAPK phosphorylation in weightlifting trained men,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 80–87, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. E. Passos, C. D. Pereira, I. O. Gonçalves et al., “Role of physical exercise on hepatic insulin, glucocorticoid and inflammatory signaling pathways in an animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” Life Sciences, vol. 123, pp. 51–60, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Jürimäe, P. Hofmann, T. Jürimäe et al., “Plasma adiponectin response to sculling exercise at individual anaerobic threshold in college level male rowers,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 272–277, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. Punyadeera, A. H. G. Zorenc, R. Koopman et al., “The effects of exercise and adipose tissue lipolysis on plasma adiponectin concentration and adiponectin receptor expression in human skeletal muscle,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 427–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. D. Kriketos, S. K. Gan, A. M. Poynten, S. M. Furler, D. J. Chisholm, and L. V. Campbell, “Exercise increases adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in humans,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 629–630, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. Lim, H. C. Sung, I.-K. Jeong et al., “Insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise on adiponectin and retinol-binding protein-4 concentrations in young and middle-aged women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 2263–2268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. V. B. O'Leary, C. M. Marchetti, R. K. Krishnan, B. P. Stetzer, F. Gonzalez, and J. P. Kirwan, “Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1584–1589, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. A. Simpson and M. A. F. Singh, “Effects of exercise on adiponectin: a systematic review,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 241–256, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. T. Kondo, I. Kobayashi, and M. Murakami, “Effect of exercise on circulating adipokine levels in obese young women,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 189–195, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. I. G. Fatouros, S. Tournis, D. Leontsini et al., “Leptin and adiponectin responses in overweight inactive elderly following resistance training and detraining are intensity related,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 5970–5977, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. K. Cho, S. Kim, H. R. Hong, J. H. Yoon, and H. Kang, “Exercise training improves whole body insulin resistance via adiponectin receptor 1,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. C. Frøsig, A. J. Rose, J. T. Treebak, B. Kiens, E. A. Richter, and J. F. P. Wojtaszewski, “Effects of endurance exercise training on insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle: Interactions at the level of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and AS160,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 2093–2102, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. K. Holten, M. Zacho, M. Gaster, C. Juel, J. F. P. Wojtaszewski, and F. Dela, “Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 294–305, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, E. M. Kane et al., “AMP-activated protein kinase α2 activity is not essential for contraction- and hyperosmolarity-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 47, pp. 39033–39041, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J. Jeppesen, S. J. Maarbjerg, A. B. Jordy et al., “LKB1 regulates lipid oxidation during exercise independently of AMPK,” Diabetes, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1490–1499, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. N. Lefort, E. St-Amand, S. Morasse, C. H. Côté, and A. Marette, “The α-subunit of AMPK is essential for submaximal contraction-mediated glucose transport in skeletal muscle in vitro,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 295, no. 6, pp. E1447–E1454, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. K. Sakamoto, A. McCarthy, D. Smith et al., “Deficiency of LKB1 in skeletal muscle prevents AMPK activation and glucose uptake during contraction,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1810–1820, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. L. Sylow, T. E. Jensen, M. Kleinert et al., “Rac1 signaling is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is dysregulated in insulin-resistant murine and human skeletal muscle,” Diabetes, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1865–1875, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. C. A. Witczak, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-α regulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake independent of AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt activation,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1403–1409, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. C. A. Witczak, N. Jessen, D. M. Warro et al., “CaMKII regulates contraction- but not insulin-induced glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 298, no. 6, pp. E1150–E1160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. C. Keller, A. Steensberg, H. Pilegaard et al., “Transcriptional activation of the IL-6 gene in human contracting skeletal muscle: influence of muscle glycogen content,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 15, no. 14, pp. 2748–2750, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. A. Febbraio, N. Hiscock, M. Sacchetti, C. P. Fischer, and B. K. Pedersen, “Interleukin-6 is a novel factor mediating glucose homeostasis during skeletal muscle contraction,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1643–1648, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. K. Ostrowski, T. Rohde, S. Asp, P. Schjerling, and B. K. Pedersen, “Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 515, no. 1, pp. 287–291, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. R. L. Starkie, J. Rolland, D. J. Angus, M. J. Anderson, and M. A. Febbraio, “Circulating monocytes are not the source of elevations in plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels after prolonged running,” American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, vol. 280, no. 4, pp. C769–C774, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  108. K. Suzuki, M. Yamada, S. Kurakake et al., “Circulating cytokines and hormones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after endurance exercise in humans,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 281–287, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. S. R. Gray, G. Baker, A. Wright, C. F. Fitzsimons, N. Mutrie, and M. A. Nimmo, “The effect of a 12 week walking intervention on markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Roden, “Exercise in type 2 diabetes: to resist or to endure?” Diabetologia, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1235–1239, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. K. S. C. Röckl, C. A. Witczak, and L. J. Goodyear, “Signaling mechanisms in skeletal muscle: acute responses and chronic adaptations to exercise,” IUBMB Life, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 145–153, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. J. R. Zierath, A. Krook, and H. Wallberg-Henriksson, “Insulin action and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle,” Diabetologia, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 821–835, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. Björnholm, Y. Kawano, M. Lehtihet, and J. R. Zierath, “Insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects after in vivo insulin stimulation,” Diabetes, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 524–527, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. A. Krook, R. A. Roth, X. J. Jiang, J. R. Zierath, and H. Wallberg-Henriksson, “Insulin-stimulated Akt kinase activity is reduced in skeletal muscle from NIDDM subjects,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1281–1286, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. W. Ryder, J. Yang, D. Galuska et al., “Use of a novel impermeable biotinylated photolabeling reagent to assess insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated cell surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 647–654, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. R. Zierath, L. He, A. Gumà, E. Odegaard Wahlström, A. Klip, and H. Wallberg-Henriksson, “Insulin action on glucose transport and plasma membrane GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from patients with NIDDM,” Diabetologia, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1180–1189, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. V. A. Lira, C. R. Benton, Z. Yan, and A. Bonen, “PGC-1α regulation by exercise training and its influences on muscle function and insulin sensitivity,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 299, no. 2, pp. E145–E161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. B. B. Kahn, T. Alquier, D. Carling, and D. G. Hardie, “AMP-activated protein kinase: ancient energy gauge provides clues to modern understanding of metabolism,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. D. R. Park, K. H. Park, B. J. Kim, C. S. Yoon, and U. H. Kim, “Exercise ameliorates insulin resistance via Ca2+ signals distinct from those of insulin for GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscles,” Diabetes, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1224–1234, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. J. T. Lanner, J. D. Bruton, A. Katz, and H. Westerblad, “Ca2+ and insulin-mediated glucose uptake,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 339–345, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. D. C. Wright, K. A. Hucker, J. O. Holloszy, and D. H. Han, “Ca2+ and AMPK both mediate stimulation of glucose transport by muscle contractions,” Diabetes, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 330–335, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. R. Rashmi, C. DeSelm, C. Helms et al., “AKT inhibitors promote cell death in cervical cancer through disruption of mTOR signaling and glucose uptake,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 4, Article ID e92948, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. C. L. Buller, R. D. Loberg, M.-H. Fan et al., “A GSK-3/TSC2/mTOR pathway regulates glucose uptake and GLUT1 glucose transporter expression,” The American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, vol. 295, no. 3, pp. C836–C843, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. J. Pereira, J. Palming, M. Rizell et al., “mTOR inhibition with rapamycin causes impaired insulin signalling and glucose uptake in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 355, no. 1, pp. 96–105, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. M. Kleinert, L. Sylow, D. J. Fazakerley et al., “Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo,” Molecular Metabolism, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 630–641, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. M. Fraenkel, M. Ketzinel-Gilad, Y. Ariav et al., “mTOR inhibition by rapamycin prevents β-cell adaptation to hyperglycemia and exacerbates the metabolic state in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 945–957, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. C. Bodine, T. N. Stitt, M. Gonzalez et al., “Akt/mTOR pathway is a crucial regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and can prevent muscle atrophy in vivo,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 1014–1019, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. M. Sandri, “Signaling in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy,” Physiology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 160–170, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. S. Klossner, A.-C. Durieux, D. Freyssenet, and M. Flueck, “Mechano-transduction to muscle protein synthesis is modulated by FAK,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 389–398, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. K. Huang and D. C. Fingar, “Growing knowledge of the mTOR signaling network,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 36, pp. 79–90, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. H. F. Kramer, C. A. Witczak, E. B. Taylor, N. Fujii, M. F. Hirshman, and L. J. Goodyear, “AS160 regulates insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 42, pp. 31478–31485, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. K. Vichaiwong, S. Purohit, D. An et al., “Contraction regulates site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D1 in skeletal muscle,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 431, no. 2, pp. 311–320, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. C. Y. Christ-Roberts, T. Pratipanawatr, W. Pratipanawatr, R. Berria, R. Belfort, and L. J. Mandarino, “Increased insulin receptor signaling and glycogen synthase activity contribute to the synergistic effect of exercise on insulin action,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 2519–2529, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. L. JeBailey, O. Wanono, W. Niu, J. Roessler, A. Rudich, and A. Klip, “Ceramide- and oxidant-induced insulin resistance involve loss of insulin-dependent Rac-activation and actin remodeling in muscle cells,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 394–403, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. H. Cho, J. Mu, J. K. Kim et al., “Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKBβ),” Science, vol. 292, no. 5522, pp. 1728–1731, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. P. H. Albers, A. J. T. Pedersen, J. B. Birk et al., “Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 485–497, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. O. S. Kwon, R. E. Tanner, K. M. Barrows et al., “MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 309, no. 1, pp. E11–E21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  138. S. Akira and S. Sato, “Toll-like receptors and their signaling mechanisms,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 555–562, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. L. Chen, R. Chen, H. Wang, and F. Liang, “Mechanisms linking inflammation to insulin resistance,” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2015, Article ID 508409, 9 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. A. Steensberg, C. P. Fischer, C. Keller, K. Møller, and B. K. Pedersen, “IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 285, no. 2, pp. E433–E437, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. H. Wen, E. A. Miao, and J. P.-Y. Ting, “Mechanisms of NOD-like receptor-associated inflammasome activation,” Immunity, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 432–441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. J. Jager, T. Grémeaux, M. Cormont, Y. Le Marchand-Brustel, and J.-F. Tanti, “Interleukin-1β-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes through down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 expression,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 241–251, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. C. Herder, E. Dalmas, M. Böni-Schnetzler, and M. Y. Donath, “The IL-1 pathway in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications,” Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 551–563, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. H. F. Kramer and L. J. Goodyear, “Exercise, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling in skeletal muscle,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 388–395, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. Z. Gao, D. Hwang, F. Bataille et al., “Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 by inhibitor κB kinase complex,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 50, pp. 48115–48121, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. K. Müssig, H. Staiger, H. Fiedler et al., “Shp2 is required for protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of serine 307 in insulin receptor substrate-1,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 38, pp. 32693–32699, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. K. Müssig, H. Fiedler, H. Staiger et al., “Insulin-induced stimulation of JNK and the PI 3-kinase/mTOR pathway leads to phosphorylation of serine 318 of IRS-1 in C2C12 myotubes,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 335, no. 3, pp. 819–825, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. E. Kefaloyianni, C. Gaitanaki, and I. Beis, “ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK signalling pathways, through MSK1, are involved in NF-κB transactivation during oxidative stress in skeletal myoblasts,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2238–2251, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. M. Karin and E. Gallagher, “From JNK to pay dirt: jun kinases, their biochemistry, physiology and clinical importance,” IUBMB Life, vol. 57, no. 4-5, pp. 283–295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. T. Kadowaki, K. Hara, T. Yamauchi, Y. Terauchi, K. Tobe, and R. Nagai, “Molecular mechanism of insulin resistance and obesity,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 228, no. 10, pp. 1111–1117, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. M. J. Yoon, G. Y. Lee, J. J. Chung, Y. H. Ahn, S. H. Hong, and J. B. Kim, “Adiponectin increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells by sequential activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 2562–2570, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. X. Mao, C. K. Kikani, R. A. Riojas et al., “APPL1 binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates adiponectin signalling and function,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 516–523, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. C. Herder, M. Carstensen, and D. M. Ouwens, “Anti-inflammatory cytokines and risk of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 39–50, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. K. Ohashi, R. Shibata, T. Murohara, and N. Ouchi, “Role of anti-inflammatory adipokines in obesity-related diseases,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 348–355, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. M. Okada-Iwabu, T. Yamauchi, M. Iwabu et al., “A small-molecule AdipoR agonist for type 2 diabetes and short life in obesity,” Nature, vol. 503, no. 7477, pp. 493–499, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. L. M. Belalcazar, W. Lang, S. M. Haffner et al., “Improving adiponectin levels in individuals with diabetes and obesity: insights from Look AHEAD,” Diabetes Care, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1544–1550, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  157. L. M. Belalcazar, W. Lang, S. M. Haffner et al., “Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the look AHEAD study,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2726–2733, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. Y. Deng and P. E. Scherer, “Adipokines as novel biomarkers and regulators of the metabolic syndrome,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1212, pp. E1–E19, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. C. Herder, M. Peltonen, P.-A. Svensson et al., “Adiponectin and bariatric surgery: associations with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1401–1409, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. B. K. Pedersen and H. Bruunsgaard, “Possible beneficial role of exercise in modulating low-grade inflammation in the elderly,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56–62, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. C. Herder, J. Baumert, A. Zierer et al., “Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e19852, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. C. Herder, J. Baumert, B. Thorand et al., “Chemokines as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study, 1984–2002,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 921–929, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. C. Herder, M. Peltonen, W. Koenig et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of lifestyle changes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study,” Diabetologia, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 433–442, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. F. Ribeiro, A. J. Alves, J. A. Duarte, and J. Oliveira, “Is exercise training an effective therapy targeting endothelial dysfunction and vascular wall inflammation?” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. P. L. Gordon, E. Vannier, K. Hamada et al., “Resistance training alters cytokine gene expression in skeletal muscle of adults with type 2 diabetes,” International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 739–749, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. G. S. Hotamisligil, “The role of TNFα and TNF receptors in obesity and insulin resistance,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 245, no. 6, pp. 621–625, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. R. Halse, S. L. Pearson, J. G. McCormack, S. J. Yeaman, and R. Taylor, “Effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on insulin action in cultured human muscle cells,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1102–1109, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. J. M. Youd, S. Rattigan, and M. G. Clark, “Acute impairment of insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and glucose uptake rat skeletal muscle vivo by TNF-α,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1904–1909, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. M. A. Nimmo, M. Leggate, J. L. Viana, and J. A. King, “The effect of physical activity on mediators of inflammation,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 51–60, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. B. K. Pedersen and M. A. Febbraio, “Point: interleukin-6 does have a beneficial role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 814–816, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  171. F.-C. Hsu, S. B. Kritchevsky, Y. Liu et al., “Association between inflammatory components and physical function in the health, aging, and body composition study: a principal component analysis approach,” Journals of Gerontology—Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 581–589, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. M. Hawkins, L. M. Belalcazar, K. B. Schelbert, C. Richardson, C. M. Ballantyne, and A. Kriska, “The effect of various intensities of physical activity and chronic inflammation in men and women by diabetes status in a national sample,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. e6–e8, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. K. D. Flack, K. P. Davy, M. W. Hulver, R. A. Winett, M. I. Frisard, and B. M. Davy, “Aging, resistance training, and diabetes prevention,” Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 127315, 12 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. J. Yin, Z. Hao, Y. Ma et al., “Concomitant activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signalling is involved in cyclic compressive force-induced IL-6 secretion in MLO-Y4 cells,” Cell Biology International, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 591–598, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. T. H. Kim, S. E. Choi, E. S. Ha et al., “IL-6 induction of TLR-4 gene expression via STAT3 has an effect on insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 189–200, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. M. A. Febbraio, “Role of interleukins in obesity: implications for metabolic disease,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 312–319, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus