Table 1: Cohort demographics and metabolic characteristics stratified by overweight/obese type and metabolic health status: Cameron County Health Cohort Study (2003–2014)1,2.

VariableMetabolically healthyMetabolically unhealthyP value
TotalNormal weightOverweight/obeseNormal weightOverweight/obese
()(, 14.63%) (, 49.09%) (, 2.22%) (, 34.06%)

Categorical variables, (%)
 Men 1108 (34.11)139 (28.64)544 (38.09)25 (33.75)400 (33.63)0.054
 Employed1618 (49.83)242 (50.95)822 (51.57)25 (34.72)529 (47.83)0.03
 Education, below high school 1693 (52.14)195 (41.05)813 (51.00)37 (51.39)648 (58.59) <0.0001
 Met minimum recommendations for physical activity of ≥ 600 MET-minutes/week 337 (10.38)48 (10.11)192 (12.05)1 (1.39)96 (8.68)0.02
 Met recommendations of ≥ 5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day113 (3.48)9 (1.89)67 (4.20)4 (5.56)33 (2.98)0.32
 Current smokers 495 (15.24)64 (13.47)222 (13.93)14 (19.44)195 (17.63)0.02
 Ever smokers984 (30.3)119 (25.05)478 (29.99)21 (29.17)366 (33.09)0.0003
 Ever alcohol drinkers1230 (37.88)186 (39.16)601 (37.70)20 (27.78)423 (38.25)0.79
 Family history of diabetes1749 (53.87)165 (34.74)876 (54.96) 41 (56.94)667 (60.31)<0.0001
Continuous variables, mean (SE)
 Age at enrollment (years)46.00 (0.68)40.59 (1.90)44.57 (0.78)53.96 (3.04)49.80 (1.27)<0.0001
 Annual household income (US dollars)22360 (872.29)19617 (1724.54)24563 (1284.32)14043 (1351.98)20561 (1084.07)<0.0001
 Years of education10.41 (0.15)11.58 (0.39)10.71 (0.17)10.24 (0.69)9.56 (0.25)<0.0001
 MET minutes/wk. of all activity1913.02 (384.71)1393.1 (445.87)2384.2 (646.06)167.15 (107.01)1447.24 (591.89)0.0002
 MET minutes/wk. of moderate and vigorous activity1217.83 (154.52)1115.31 (261.88)1572.37 (274.14)67.47 (48.29)768.36 (151.68)<0.0001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)183.58 (1.14)176.41 (2.62)182.76 (1.67)188.24 (7.55)187.66 (1.85)<0.0001
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)162.37 (3.62)98.8 (3.25)124.83 (3.51)195.41 (13.61)238.58 (7.11)<0.0001
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)46.45 (0.38)53.73 (1.06)49.41 (0.44)42.67 (1.32)39.64 (0.45)<0.0001
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)107.38 (1.00)103.14 (2.28)109.86 (1.49)108.64 (6.82)105.83 (1.72)0.06
 Body mass index (kg/m2)30.99 (0.21)22.44 (0.16)31.56 (0.24)22.53 (0.47)34.08 (0.32)<0.0001
 Waist circumference (cm)102.87 (0.47)84.69 (0.91)103.35 (0.52)86.98 (0.91)110.3 (0.67)<0.0001
 Waist-to-hip ratio0.93 (0.002)0.88 (0.01)0.93 (0.003)0.89 (0.01)0.96 (0.003)<0.0001
 Body fat (%)35.59 (0.47)25.80 (0.88)36.51 (0.65)27.69 (3.39)38.33 (0.76)<0.0001
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)3.90 (1.04)1.48 (1.08)2.18 (1.09)2.77 (1.27)5.75 (1.05)<0.0001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 116.92 (0.55)107.53 (1.38)113.3 (0.54)126.04 (3.38)125.42 (0.99)<0.0001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 71.19 (0.32)66.24 (1.18)70.07 (0.35)71.89 (1.51)74.83 (0.57)<0.0001
 Insulin (mg/dL)312.55 (1.02)7.69 (1.06)11.47 (1.02)9.12 (1.14)17.29 (1.03)<0.0001
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)3105.64 (1.01)93.69 (1.01)101.49 (1.01)111.05 (1.06)119.10 (1.02)<0.0001
 HOMA IR33.29 (1.02)1.82 (1.07)2.89 (1.02)2.53 (1.17)5.05 (1.03)<0.0001
 HbA1c (%)35.53 (1.01)5.05 (1.02)5.31 (1.01)6.23 (1.04)5.93 (1.02)<0.0001

1LDL: low-density lipoprotein; Hb: hemoglobin; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; HOMA IR: homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance; MET: metabolic equivalent.
2All descriptive results and the models were adjusted for the probability of sampling using weights taking into consideration clustering effects arising from the same census block and household. Linear regression models were used for continuous variables and Rao-Scott adjusted chi-square statistic for categorical variables.
3Geometric concentrations.