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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 4536470, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4536470
Research Article

Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice

1Department of Sports Medicine, Institute of Sports Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University, 35394 Giessen, Germany
2Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
3Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, German Center for Lung Research, Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System, Justus-Liebig-University, 35392 Giessen, Germany
4Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutrition Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University, 35392 Giessen, Germany

Received 6 May 2015; Revised 19 August 2015; Accepted 20 August 2015

Academic Editor: Kimber Stanhope

Copyright © 2016 Cornelia Mardare et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST) or a high fat diet (HFD) and subjected to regular endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT). After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs), circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (). An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (). Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight () and reduced serum ceramides (). While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT) expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (), respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (), ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.