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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 6264149, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6264149
Review Article

Metainflammation in Diabetic Coronary Artery Disease: Emerging Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

1Department of Genetics, Dr. ALM. PG. IBMS, University of Madras, Chennai 600113, India
2AU-KBC Research Centre, MIT Campus of Anna University, Chennai 600044, India

Received 19 May 2016; Accepted 19 July 2016

Academic Editor: Zhenwu Zhuang

Copyright © 2016 Vivekanandhan Aravindhan and Haridoss Madhumitha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Globally, noncommunicable chronic diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are posing a major threat to the world. T2DM is known to potentiate CAD which had led to the coining of a new clinical entity named diabetic CAD (DM-CAD), leading to excessive morbidity and mortality. The synergistic interaction between these two comorbidities is through sterile inflammation which is now being addressed as metabolic inflammation or metainflammation, which plays a pivotal role during both early and late stages of T2DM and also serves as a link between T2DM and CAD. This review summarises the current concepts on the role played by both innate and adaptive immune responses in setting up metainflammation in DM-CAD. More specifically, the role played by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD1-like receptors (NLRs), Rig-1-like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin like receptors (CLRs) and metabolic endotoxemia in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD would be discussed. Further, the role played by adaptive immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 cells) in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD will also be discussed.