Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6278709, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6278709
Research Article

Cannabis Use as Risk or Protection for Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study of 18 000 Swedish Men and Women

1Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
3Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm County, Sweden

Received 30 August 2016; Revised 22 September 2016; Accepted 5 October 2016

Academic Editor: Dario Iafusco

Copyright © 2016 A. K. Danielsson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, “World drug report 2015,” Sales No. E.15.XI.6, United Nations Publication, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. Thomas, R. A. Kloner, and S. Rezkalla, “Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 187–190, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Degenhardt, C. Coffey, H. Romaniuk et al., “The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood,” Addiction, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 124–133, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Andréasson, A. Engström, P. Allebeck, and U. Rydberg, “Cannabis and schizophrenia. A Longitudinal Study of Swedish conscripts,” The Lancet, vol. 330, no. 8574, pp. 1483–1486, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Zammit, P. Allebeck, S. Andreasson, I. Lundberg, and G. Lewis, “Self reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7374, pp. 1199–1201, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Lev-Ran, M. Roerecke, B. Le Foll, T. P. George, K. McKenzie, and J. Rehm, “The association between cannabis use and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 797–810, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. G. Cox, L. Zhang, W. D. Johnson, and D. R. Bender, “Academic performance and substance use: findings from a state survey of public high school students,” Journal of School Health, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 109–115, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. M. Tetrault, K. Crothers, B. A. Moore, R. Mehra, J. Concato, and D. A. Fiellin, “Effects of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications: a systematic review,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 221–228, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. P. Tashkin, G. C. Baldwin, T. Sarafian, S. Dubinett, and M. D. Roth, “Respiratory and immunologic consequences of marijuana smoking,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 42, supplement 11, pp. 71S–81S, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. C. Callaghan, P. Allebeck, and A. Sidorchuk, “Marijuana use and risk of lung cancer: a 40-year cohort study,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1811–1820, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. G. Hackam, “Cannabis and stroke: systematic appraisal of case reports,” Stroke, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 852–856, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. Tamayo, J. Rosenbauer, S. H. Wild et al., “Diabetes in Europe: an update,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 206–217, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Cullmann, A. Hilding, and C.-G. Östenson, “Alcohol consumption and risk of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes development in a Swedish population,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 441–452, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Hilding, A.-K. Eriksson, E. E. Agardh et al., “The impact of family history of diabetes and lifestyle factors on abnormal glucose regulation in middle-aged Swedish men and women,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 2589–2598, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. World Health Organization (WHO), The Health and Social Effects of Nonmedical Cannabis Use, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2016.
  16. N. Jamshidi and D. A. Taylor, “Anandamide administration into the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulates appetite in rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 1151–1154, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. M. Williams and T. C. Kirkham, “Anandamide induces overeating: mediation by central cannabinoid (CB1) receptors,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 315–317, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Weiss, M. Zeira, S. Reich et al., “Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 244–249, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Weiss, M. Zeira, S. Reich et al., “Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice,” Autoimmunity, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 143–151, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. C. Kirkham, “Cannabinoids and appetite: food craving and food pleasure,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 163–171, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Di Marzo, F. Piscitelli, and R. Mechoulam, “Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in metabolic disorders with focus on diabetes,” in Diabetes—Perspectives in Drug Therapy, M. Schwanstecher, Ed., vol. 203 of Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, pp. 75–104, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. T. B. Rajavashisth, M. Shaheen, K. C. Norris et al., “Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III,” BMJ Open, vol. 2, no. 1, Article ID 000494, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. A. Penner, H. Buettner, and M. A. Mittleman, “The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 126, no. 7, pp. 583–589, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Smit and C. J. Crespo, “Dietary intake and nutritional status of US adult marijuana users: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 781–786, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Ngueta, R. E. Bélanger, E. A. Laouan-Sidi, and M. Lucas, “Cannabis use in relation to obesity and insulin resistance in the inuit population,” Obesity, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 290–295, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Le Strat and B. Le Foll, “Obesity and cannabis use: results from 2 representative national surveys,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 174, no. 8, pp. 929–933, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. Alshaarawy and J. C. Anthony, “Cannabis smoking and diabetes mellitus: results from meta-analysis with eight independent replication samples,” Epidemiology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 597–600, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. M. P. Bancks, M. J. Pletcher, S. G. Kertesz, S. Sidney, J. S. Rana, and P. J. Schreiner, “Marijuana use and risk of prediabetes and diabetes by middle adulthood: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study,” Diabetologia, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 2736–2744, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. C. Svensson, P. Fredlund, L. Laflamme et al., “Cohort profile: the stockholm public health cohort,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 42, no. 5, Article ID dys126, pp. 1263–1272, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Greenland, “Modeling and variable selection in epidemiologic analysis,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 340–349, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. A. Mittleman, R. A. Lewis, M. Maclure, J. B. Sherwood, and J. E. Muller, “Triggering myocardial infarction by marijuana,” Circulation, vol. 103, no. 23, pp. 2805–2809, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Rodondi, M. J. Pletcher, K. Liu, S. B. Hulley, and S. Sidney, “Marijuana use, diet, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors (from the CARDIA Study),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 478–484, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Muniyappa, S. Sable, R. Ouwerkerk et al., “Metabolic effects of chronic cannabis smoking,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 2415–2422, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Public Health Agency (Statens Folkhälsoinstitut), 2015, https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/documents/statistik-uppfoljning/enkater-undersokningar/nationella-folkhalsoenkaten/resultat-2015/narkotikavanor-nationella-resultat-och-tidsserier-2015.xls
  35. A. I. Christensen, O. Ekholm, L. Gray, C. Glümer, and K. Juel, “What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey,” Addiction, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 1505–1512, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus