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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 6726492, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6726492
Research Article

Resting Heart Rate Does Not Predict Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

1Department of Pathophysiology, Medical Faculty, Masaryk University Brno, Kamenice 5, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
2Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Masaryk University Brno, Kamenice 126/3, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
3Department of Internal Medicine-Gastroenterology, University Hospital Brno, Jihlavská 20, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
42nd Department of Internal Medicine, St. Anne’s University Hospital, Pekařská 53, 65691 Brno, Czech Republic

Received 24 July 2015; Revised 13 November 2015; Accepted 24 November 2015

Academic Editor: Dirk Westermann

Copyright © 2016 Vendula Bartáková et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular events. Limited data are available so far in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects with no study focusing on progressive renal decline specifically. Aims of our study were to verify RHR as a simple and reliable predictor of adverse disease outcomes in T2DM patients. A total of 421 T2DM patients with variable baseline stage of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) were prospectively followed. A history of the cardiovascular disease was present in 81 (19.2%) patients at baseline, and DKD (glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min or proteinuria) was present in 328 (77.9%) at baseline. Progressive renal decline was defined as a continuous rate of glomerular filtration rate loss ≥ 3.3% per year. Resting heart rate was not significantly higher in subjects with cardiovascular disease or DKD at baseline compared to those without. Using time-to-event analyses, significant differences in the cumulative incidence of the studied outcomes, that is, progression of DKD (and specifically progressive renal decline), major advanced cardiovascular event, and all-cause mortality, between RHR </≥65 (arbitrary cut-off) and 75 (median) bpm were not found. We did not ascertain predictive value of the RHR for the renal or cardiovascular outcomes in T2DM subjects in Czech Republic.