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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 7386532, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7386532
Research Article

Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

1Diabetes Centre, Isala, 8000 GK Zwolle, Netherlands
2Department of General Practice, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands
3Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 HP Nijmegen, Netherlands
4Langerhans Medical Research Group, 8025 BT Zwolle, Netherlands
5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands
6Department of Internal Medicine, Isala, 8025 AB Zwolle, Netherlands

Received 6 May 2016; Revised 12 July 2016; Accepted 31 July 2016

Academic Editor: Joanne Protheroe

Copyright © 2016 Steven H. Hendriks et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (). In men, lower age (), a higher WHO-5 score (), and a lower BMI () were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score () and the absence of macrovascular complications () were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women.