Journal of Diabetes Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Table 5

ORs of prediabetes and T2DM according to the inflammatory markers.

OR (95% CI)
PDG versus NGGDMG versus NGGDMG versus PDG

IgE
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.34 (0.89–2.03)0.1663.05 (1.93–4.84)<0.0012.28 (1.45–3.28)<0.001
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.35 (0.89–2.65)0.1563.11 (1.95–4.95)<0.0012.29 (1.46–3.59)<0.001
 Model 3 (multivariable)1.41 (0.89–2.24)0.1473.51 (1.96–6.29)<0.0012.55 (1.52–4.25)<0.001
 Model 4 (multivariable + CRP)1.36 (0.85–2.19)0.1983.79 (1.89–7.73)<0.0012.58 (1.49–4.46)0.001
 Model 5 (multivariable + tryptase)1.40 (0.88–2.23)0.1563.48 (1.94–6.25)<0.0012.52 (1.51–4.23)<0.001
 Model 6 (multivariable + IL-6)1.40 (0.88–2.22)0.1583.51 (1.96–6.29)<0.0012.54 (1.52–4.25)<0.001
 Model 7 (multivariable + TNF-)1.42 (0.89–2.89)0.1463.49 (1.95–6.26)<0.0012.55 (1.52–4.25)<0.001
 Model 8 (multivariable + IL-4)1.32 (0.83–2.11)0.2443.44 (1.91–6.18)<0.0012.55 (1.53–4.26)<0.001
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-10)1.30 (1.81–2.07)0.2832.72 (1.45–5.10)0.0022.33 (1.38–3.93)0.002
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)1.39 (0.87–2.21)0.1673.46 (1.92–6.23)<0.0012.57 (1.54–4.30)<0.001
CRP
 Model 1 (unadjusted)2.35 (1.57–3.52)<0.00111.76 (6.90–20.03)<0.0015.01 (3.00–8.37)<0.001
 Model 2 (age and sex)2.32 (1.55–3.49)<0.00111.70 (6.84–20.02)<0.0015.11 (3.04–8.57)<0.001
 Model 3 (multivariable)2.34 (1.49–3.67)<0.00116.14 (7.99–32.59)<0.0015.73 (3.19–10.29)<0.001
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)2.31 (1.47–3.64)<0.00117.23 (8.17–36.33)<0.0015.81 (3.19–10.59)<0.001
 Model 5 (multivariable + tryptase)2.31 (1.47–3.63)<0.00116.17 (7.99–32.70)<0.0015.81 (3.23–10.48)<0.001
 Model 6 (multivariable + IL-6)2.34 (1.49–3.68)<0.00116.30 (7.99–32.59)<0.0015.79 (3.21–10.43)<0.001
 Model 7 (multivariable + TNF-)2.36 (1.50–3.72)<0.00117.30 (8.43–35.52)<0.0015.75 (3.20–10.34)<0.001
 Model 8 (multivariable + IL-4)2.23 (1.41–3.51)0.00117.34 (8.39–35.86)<0.0015.87 (3.24–10.61)<0.001
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-10)2.25 (1.42–3.54)0.00117.35 (8.24–35.74)<0.0015.79 (3.16–10.59)<0.001
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)2.30 (1.46–3.62)<0.00116.24 (7.99–33.02)<0.0015.93 (3.29–10.72)<0.001
Tryptase
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.53 (1.01–2.32)0.0441.15 (0.70–1.88)0.5880.75 (0.46–1.21)0.237
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.55 (0.99–2.29)0.0551.21 (0.68–1.85)0.6530.75 (0.46–1.21)0.236
 Model 3 (multivariable)1.57 (0.99–2.50)0.0571.35 (0.73–2.47)0.3360.75 (0.44–1.29)0.305
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)1.56 (0.98–2.45)0.061.32 (0.66–2.36)02240.78 (0.45–1.36)0.485
 Model 5 (multivariable + CRP)1.52 (0.95–2.44)0.0821.34 (0.66–2.73)0.4170.71 (0.40–1.25)0.235
 Model 6 (multivariable + IL-6)1.22 (0.74–2.00)0.4361.39 (0.74–2.61)0.3060.83 (0.47–1.47)0.527
 Model 7 (multivariable + TNF-)1.47 (0.90–2.38)0.1261.28 (0.68–2.41)0.4400.71 (0.40–1.27)0.246
 Model 8 (multivariable + IL-4)1.63 (1.02–2.61)0.0411.26 (0.67–2.30)0.4840.73 (0.42–1.26)0.263
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-10)1.36 (0.84–2.19)0.2130.93 (0.47–1.84)0.8410.64 (0.37–1.12)0.117
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)1.50 (0.92–2.44)0.1071.21 (0.58–2.51)0.6120.77 (0.41–1.43)0.399
IL-6
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.37 (0.91–2.08)0.1360.85 (0.51–1.42)0.5340.62 (0.37–1.03)0.062
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.36 (0.90–2.07)0.1460.86 (0.51–1.44)0.5600.62 (0.37–1.03)0.062
 Model 3 (multivariable)1.37 (0.86–2.19)0.1880.97 (0.51–1.85)0.9220.68 (0.39–1.18)0.169
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)1.36 (0.85–2.18)0.2021.01 (0.52–1.96)0.9850.68 (0.40–1.20)0.188
 Model 5 (multivariable + CRP)1.37 (0.85–2.22)0.1930.99 (0.46–2.11)0.9770.64 (0.36–1.18)0.159
 Model 6 (multivariable + tryptase)1.22 (0.74–2.00)0.4360.88 (0.45–1.73)0.7200.72 (0.40–1.29)0.264
 Model 7 (multivariable + TNF-)1.41 (0.88–2.27)0.1570.95 (0.50–1.82)0.8760.67 (0.38–1.17)0.161
 Model 8 (multivariable + IL-4)1.25 (0.77–2.02)0.3740.85 (0.43–1.65)0.6240.62 (0.35–1.12)0.111
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-10)1.19 (0.73–1.93)0.4830.68 (0.33–1.39)0.2870.56 (0.31–1.00)0.05
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)0.68 (0.39–1.20)0.1830.91 (0.47–1.75)0.7690.68 (0.39–1.20)0.183
TNF-
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.29 (0.85–2.97)0.2391.24 (0.76–2.02)0.3900.96 (0.59–1.53)0.866
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.31 (0.85–2.00)0.2181.26 (0.77–2.07)0.3580.96 (0.59–1.55)0.867
 Model 3 (multivariable)1.43 (0.89–2.29)0.1401.29 (0.70–2.38)0.4201.04 (0.60–1.81)0.883
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)1.42 (0.89–2.89)0.1461.26 (0.67–2.38)0.4801.04 (0.59–1.83)0.885
 Model 5 (multivariable + CRP)1.46 (0.90–2.37)0.1271.83 (0.87–3.85)0.1110.94 (0.52–1.68)0.829
 Model 6 (multivariable + tryptase)1.27 (0.77–2.09)0.3471.20 (0.63–2.28)0.5721.19 (0.66–2.15)0.570
 Model 7 (multivariable + IL-6)1.41 (0.88–2.27)0.1571.29 (0.70–2.40)0.4141.10 (0.63–1.91)0.751
 Model 8 (multivariable + IL-4)1.35 (0.84–2.18)0.2181.20 (0.64–2.25)0.5681.02 (0.58–1.78)0.944
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-10)1.27 (0.77–2.05)0.3521.24 (0.56–2.14)0.6520.89 (0.51–1.58)0.694
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)1.06 (0.61–1.85)0.8401.24 (0.66–2.30)0.5041.06 (0.61–1.85)0.840
IL-4
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.90 (1.27–2.86)0.0022.26 (1.42–3.59)0.0011.19 (0.76–1.85)0.456
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.93 (1.28–2.92)0.0022.27 (1.41–3.63)0.0011.19 (0.76–1.86)0.457
 Model 3 (multivariable)1.73 (1.09–2.75)0.0202.06 (1.15–3.68)0.0151.13 (0.68–1.87)0.649
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)1.67 (1.05–2.66)0.030 1.98 (1.10–3.58)0.0231.14 (0.68–1.90)0.630
 Model 5 (multivariable + CRP)1.58 (1.00–2.52)0.0572.47 (1.22–4.98)0.0120.86 (0.50–1.50)0.601
 Model 6 (multivariable + tryptase)1.53 (1.02–2.61)0.0412.01 (1.02–3.60)0.0191.18 (0.71–1.99)0.522
 Model 7 (multivariable + IL-6)1.67 (1.04–2.66)0.0332.11 (1.17–3.80)0.0131.29 (0.76–2.21)0.350
 Model 8 (multivariable + TNF-)1.68 (1.06–2.67)0.0262.03 (1.13–3.63)0.0171.12 (0.67–1.87)0.663
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-10)1.46 (0.90–2.36)0.1251.58 (0.84–2.97)0.1580.88 (0.52–1.51)0.645
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)1.68 (1.05–2.69)0.0311.94 (1.10–3.53)0.0231.15 (0.69–1.92)0.601
IL-10
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.99 (1.32–2.99)0.0015.76 (3.57–9.29)<0.0012.90 (1.84–4.58)<0.001
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.03 (1.00–1.06)0.0606.07 (3.72–9.91)<0.0012.92 (1.84–4.62)<0.001
 Model 3 (multivariable)2.17 (1.37–3.46)0.0018.61 (4.51–16.41)<0.0013.03 (1.79–5.12)<0.001
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)2.11 (1.32–3.37)0.0027.56 (3.92–14.57)<0.0012.82 (1.65–4.81)<0.001
 Model 5 (multivariable + CRP)2.07 (1.29–3.31)0.0027.33 (3.27–13.68)<0.0013.06 (1.73–5.39)<0.001
 Model 6 (multivariable + tryptase)2.05 (1.28–3.29)0.0038.70 (4.52–16.73)<0.0013.21 (1.18–5.48)<0.001
 Model 7 (multivariable + IL-6)2.11 (1.32–3.38)0.0028.79 (4.12–16.04)<0.0013.28 (1.92–5.60)<0.001
 Model 8 (multivariable + TNF-)2.10 (1.31–3.36)0.0028.66 (3.99–15.86)<0.0013.07 (1.81–5.22)<0.001
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-4)1.98 (1.23–3.20)0.0058.86 (4.11–15.06)<0.0013.11 (1.81–5.33)<0.001
 Model 10 (multivariable + Foxp3)2.13 (1.33–3.41)0.0028.62 (4.50–16.49)<0.0013.04 (1.79–5.13)<0.001
Foxp3+
 Model 1 (unadjusted)1.35 (0.89–2.06)0.1621.10 (0.67–1.81)0.7020.82 (0.50–1.33)0.415
 Model 2 (age and sex)1.33 (0.87–2.03)0.1901.07 (0.65–1.77)0.7880.81 (0.50–1.33)0.410
 Model 3 (multivariable)1.31 (0.81–2.17)0.2701.69 (0.91–3.12)0.0970.90 (0.52–1.57)0.720
 Model 4 (multivariable + IgE)1.35 (0.84–2.17)0.2111.61 (0.85–3.04)0.1480.84 (0.48–1.48)0.551
 Model 5 (multivariable + CRP)1.19 (0.73–1.95)0.478150 (0.65–3.24)0.2410.73 (0.40–1.31)0.293
 Model 6 (multivariable + tryptase)1.17 (0.71–1.93)0.5441.61 (0.85–3.04)0.1441.01 (0.56–1.83)0.977
 Model 7 (multivariable + IL-6)1.24 (0.76–2.02)0.3951.70 (0.92–3.17)0.0930.98 (0.56–1.73)0.947
 Model 8 (multivariable + TNF-)1.26 (0.78–2.04)0.3491.66 (0.89–3.07)0.1110.90 (0.51–1.56)0.701
 Model 9 (multivariable + IL-4)1.17 (0.72–1.92)0.5251.57 (0.84–2.93)0.1610.88 (0.50–1.54)0.659
 Model 10 (multivariable + IL-10)1.13 (0.69–1.86)0.6241.68 (0.86–3.28)0.1320.88 (0.50–1.55)0.651

ORs: odd ratios; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglyceride; BMI: body mass index; WHR: waist hip ratio; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; IgE: immunoglobulin E; hs-CRP: hypersensitivity C-reactive protein; IL-4: interleukin-4; IL-6: interleukin-6; IL-10: interleukin-10; Foxp3+: forkhead/winged helix transcription factor 3+; TNF-: tumor necrosis factor.
Data are OR (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.
Model 1 was not adjusted for any variable.
Model 2 was adjusted for age and sex.
Model 3 was adjusted for age, sex, BMI, WHR, SBP, DBP, TC, TG, level of physical activity, dietary intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, presence or absence of family history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and hypercholesterolemia.

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