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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 9051426, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9051426
Review Article

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Kozep Fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
2Department of Laboratory Science and Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Science and Technology, Alfred Naccache Avenue, Beirut 1100, Lebanon
3Sport Science Program, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Received 16 May 2016; Revised 27 June 2016; Accepted 28 June 2016

Academic Editor: Hiroshi Okamoto

Copyright © 2016 Amin Al-awar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans.