Journal of Diabetes Research / 2016 / Article / Tab 7

Research Article

Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Table 7

Association between lifestyle characteristic and obesity using WC, WHR, and WHtR as indicators.

Lifestyles featuresWCWHRWHtR
NormalOverweightObeseNormalOverweightObeseNormalObese
= 325 = 76 = 142 = 46 = 165 = 330 = 323 = 220

Snack in between meals0.6843, 2 (p = 0.7102)12.84, 2 (p = 0.0016)4.803, 1 (p = 0.0284)
 Yes ( = 95)55 (58.3%)16 (16.7%)24 (25.0%)16 (16.7%)20 (20.8%)59 (62.5%)43 (45.8%)13 (54.2%)
 No ( = 448)270 (60.2%)61 (13.6%)118 (26.3%)30 (6.7%)145 (32.2%)273 (61.0%)277 (61.9%)171 (38.1%)
Taking meals late at night1.929, 2 (p = 0.3812)8.719, 2 (p = 0.0128)4.882, 1 (p = 0.0271)
 Yes ( = 76)40 (52.6%)12 (15.8%)24 (31.6%)8 (10.5%)12 (15.8%)56 (73.7%)36 (47.3%)40 (52.6%)
 No ( = 467)284 (60.9%)64 (13.8%)118 (25.2%)38 (8.1%)152 (32.5%)277 (59.3%)284 (60.9%)183 (39.1%)
Regular exercise10.26, 2 (p = 0.0059)1.486, 2 (p = 0.4757)0.08455, 1 (p = 0.7712)
 Yes ( = 133)95 (71.4%)11 (8.6%)27 (20.0%)11 (8.6%)46 (34.3%)76 (57.1%)80 (60.0%)53 (40.0%)
 No ( = 410)228 (55.6%)64 (15.7%)114 (27.8%)34 (8.3%)118 (28.7%)254 (62.0%)239 (58.3%)168 (40.7%)
Fast food intake3.435, 2 (p = 0.1795)17.27, 2 (p = 0.0002)25.01, 1 (p < 0.0001)
 Yes ( = 220)121 (55.2%)34 (15.5%)64 (29.3%)31 (14.3%)55 (25.0%)141 (64.3%)106 (48.2%)122 (55.4%)
 No ( = 323)201 (62.3%)42 (12.9%)76 (23.5%)15 (4.7%)110 (34.1%)194 (60.0%)217 (67.1%)103 (31.8%)
Alcohol intake2.629, 2 (p = 0.2686)8.748, 2 (p = 0.0126)2.037, 1 (p = 0.1535)
 Yes ( = 15)11 (75.0%)4 (25.0%)4 (25.0%)7 (50.0%)4 (25.0%)1 (25.0%)3 (75.0%)
 No ( = 528)314 (58.9%)76 (14.4%)138 (25.9%)417 (7.9%)156 (29.5%)327 (61.9%)315 (59.7%)209 (39.6%)

Values are presented in frequency with percentages in parenthesis. Chi-square value (χ2), df ( value). BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; WHR: waist to hip ratio; WHtR: waist to height ratio.