Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 2376016, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2376016
Research Article

High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes in North India

1Center of Nutrition & Metabolic Research (C-NET), National Diabetes, Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation (N-DOC), Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi, India
2Diabetes Foundation (India), Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi, India
3Fortis C-DOC Centre of Excellence for Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases and Endocrinology, Chirag Enclave, Nehru Place, New Delhi, India
4Mahajan Imaging Centre, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Anoop Misra; moc.liamg@arsimpoona

Received 12 February 2017; Accepted 3 April 2017; Published 28 May 2017

Academic Editor: Konstantinos Papatheodorou

Copyright © 2017 Shajith Anoop et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Misra and U. Shrivastava, “Obesity and dyslipidaemia in South Asians,” Nutrients, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 2708–2733, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. K. Vikram, A. Misra, R. M. Pandey et al., “Anthropometry and body composition in northern Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes: receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis of body mass index with percentage body fat as standard,” Diabetes, Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 32–40, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Misra, S. Anoop, S. Gulati, K. Mani, S. P. Bhatt, and R. M. Pandey, “Body fat patterning, hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of nonobese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes in North India: a case-control study,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 10, article e0140447, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Misra, S. Anoop, S. Gulati, K. Mani, S. P. Bhatt, and R. M. Pandey, “Correction: body fat patterning, hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non- obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes in North India: a case- control study,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 11, article e0142749, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Geary, “Glucagon and the control of meal size,” in Satiation: From gut to Brain, G. P. Smith, Ed., pp. 164–197, Oxford University press, New York, NY, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Gerich, J. Davis, M. Lorenzi et al., “Hormonal mechanisms of recovery from hypoglycemia in man,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 236, no. 4, pp. E380–E385, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  7. R. H. Unger, E. Aguilar-Parada, W. A. Muller, and A. M. Eisentraut, “Studies of pancreatic α cell function in normal and diabetic subjects,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 837–848, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. P. E. Cryer, “Hypoglycaemia: the limiting factor in the glycaemic management of type I and type II diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 937–948, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Bajaj, P. Nigam, A. Luthra et al., “A case-control study on insulin resistance, metabolic covariates & prediction score in non-alcoholic NAFLD disease,” The Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 285–292, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Chandalia, P. Lin, T. Seenivasan, E. H. Livingston, P. G. Snell, and S. M. Grundy, “Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men,” PLoS One, vol. 2, no. 8, article e812, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. World Medical Association, “World Medical association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 310, no. 20, pp. 2191–2194, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Dudeja, A. Misra, R. M. Pandey, G. Devina, G. Kumar, and N. K. Vikram, “BMI does not accurately predict overweight in Asian Indians in northern India,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 105–112, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. N. Chalasani, Z. Younossi, J. E. Lavine et al., “The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic NAFLD disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association,” Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2005–2023, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z. Permutt, T. A. Le, M. R. Peterson, E. Seki, D. A. Brenner, and C. Sirlin, “Correlation between liver histology and novel magnetic resonance imaging in adult patients with non-alcoholic NAFLD disease - MRI accurately quantifies hepatic steatosis in NAFLD,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Goda, E. Sasaki, K. Nagata, M. Fukai, N. Ohsawa, and T. Hahafusa, “Pancreatic volume in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 145–149, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Raji, E. W. Seely, R. A. Arky, and D. C. Simonson, “Body fat distribution and insulin resistance in healthy Asian Indians and Caucasians,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 5366–5371, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. R. Goel, A. Misra, D. Kondal et al., “Identification of insulin resistance in Asian Indian adolescents: classification and regression tree (CART) and logistic regression based classification rules,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 717–724, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Misra, N. K. Vikram, S. Arya et al., “High prevalence of insulin resistance in postpubertal Asian Indian children is associated with adverse truncal body fat patterning, abdominal adiposity and excess body fat,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1217–1226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Goel, A. Misra, N. K. Vikram, P. Poddar, and N. Gupta, “Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is associated with the metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians independent of intra-abdominal and total body fat,” Heart, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 579–583, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. S. Anand, A. Mark, M. A. Tarnopolsky et al., “Adipocyte hypertrophy, fatty liver and metabolic risk factors in South Asians: the Molecular Study of Health and Risk in Ethnic groups (mol-SHARE),” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 7, article e22112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Marinou, L. Hodson, S. K. Vasan, B. A. Fielding, R. Banerjee, and K. Brismar, “Structural and functional properties of deep abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue explain its association with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 821–829, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Munoz, N. Abate, and M. Chandalia, “Adipose tissue collagen and inflammation in non obese Asian Indian men,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. E1360–E1363, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Abate, M. Chandalia, P. G. Snell, and S. M. Grundy, “Adipose tissue metabolites in nondiabetic Asian Indian men,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2750–2755, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Mauriege, W. M. Klein Kranenbarg, D. Prud’homme et al., “Insulin and glucagon responses to adrenaline infusion in abdominal obese men,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 668–676, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  25. C. Longuet, E. M. Sinclair, A. Maida et al., “The glucagon receptor is required for the adaptive metabolic response to fasting,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 359–371, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. J. Holst, N. J. Wewer Albrechtsen, J. Pedersen, and F. K. Knop, “Glucagon and amino acids are linked to a mutual feedback cycle. The liver-α-cell axis,” Diabetes, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. J. J. Holst, F. Burcharth, and C. Kuhl, “Pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones in cirrhosis of the liver: portal vein concentrations during intravenous glucose tolerance test and in response to a meal,” Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117–127, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. Watanabe, Y. Seino, H. Miyahira et al., “Remodeling of hepatic metabolism and hyperaminoacidemia in mice deficient in proglucagon-derived peptides,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 74–84, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Sharma, S. Sinha, K. A. Danishad et al., “Investigation of hepatic gluconeogenesis pathway in nondiabetic Asian Indians with non-alcoholic NAFLD disease using in vivo (31)P phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 291–297, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. A. Cyanober, “Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance,” Nutrition, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 761–766, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  31. O. Hamberg, V. Andersen, J. Sonne, S. Larsen, and H. Vilstrup, “Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: relation to glucagon secretion and dietary protein intake,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 493–501, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. R. Konopka, R. R. Esponda, M. M. Robinson et al., “Hyperglucagonemia mitigates the effect of metformin on glucose production in prediabetes,” Cell Reports, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1394–1400, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus