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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 3918681, 6 pages
Research Article

Urinary Microvesicle-Bound Uromodulin: A Potential Molecular Biomarker in Diabetic Kidney Disease

1The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 247 Beiyuan Street, Ji’nan, Shandong 250033, China
2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine of Shandong University, Shandong, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Ai-li Sun; moc.361@nsyllia

Received 15 October 2016; Revised 27 November 2016; Accepted 4 December 2016; Published 15 January 2017

Academic Editor: Carlos Martinez Salgado

Copyright © 2017 Neng-jun Lou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study was designed to investigate the changes of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin and total urinary uromodulin levels in human urine and the correlations with the severity of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). 31 healthy subjects without diabetes and 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included in this study. The patients with T2DM were divided into three groups based on the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR): normoalbuminuria group (DM, ); microalbuminuria group (DN1, ); and macroalbuminuria group (DN2, ). We use a specific monoclonal antibody AD-1 to capture the urinary microvesicles. Urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin and total urinary uromodulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the levels of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin in DN1 and DN2 groups were significantly higher than those in control group and DM group (). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that UACR was independent determinant for urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin () but not for total urinary uromodulin. These findings suggest that the levels of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin are associated with the severity of DKD. The uromodulin in urinary microvesicles may be a specific marker of DKD and potentially may be used to predict the onset and/or monitor the progression of DKD.