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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4124967, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4124967
Research Article

Detection of Islet Cell Immune Reactivity with Low Glycemic Index Foods: Is This a Concern for Type 1 Diabetes?

1Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2TRANSCEND Research, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Boston, MA 02129, USA
3Department of Preventive Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA
4Immunosciences Laboratory, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Datis Kharrazian; ude.dravrah.smh@naizarrahk_sitad

Received 14 March 2017; Revised 25 April 2017; Accepted 17 May 2017; Published 27 July 2017

Academic Editor: Hiroshi Okamoto

Copyright © 2017 Datis Kharrazian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dietary management of autoimmune diabetes includes low glycemic foods classified from the glycemic index, but it does not consider the role that immunoreactive foods may play with the immunological etiology of the disease. We measured the reactivity of either monoclonal or polyclonal affinity-purified antibodies to insulin, insulin receptor alpha, insulin receptor beta, zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), tyrosine phosphatase-based islet antigen 2 (IA2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67 against 204 dietary proteins that are commonly consumed. Dietary protein determinants included unmodified (raw) and modified (cooked and roasted) foods, herbs, spices, food gums, brewed beverages, and additives. There was no immune reactivity between insulin or insulin receptor beta and dietary proteins. However, we identified strong to moderate immunological reactivity with antibodies against insulin receptor alpha, ZnT8, IA2, GAD-65, and GAD-67 with several dietary proteins. We also identified 49 dietary proteins found in foods classified as low glycemic foods with immune reactivity to autoimmune target sites. Laboratory analysis of immunological cross-reactivity between pancreas target sites and dietary proteins is the initial step necessary in determining whether dietary proteins may play a potential immunoreactive role in autoimmune diabetes.