Research Article

Sulodexide Protects Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Injury via Upregulating Klotho Expression at an Early Stage of Diabetic Kidney Disease

Figure 2

Effect of SDX on cellular apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. (a) The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, α-SMA, and tubulin are analyzed by Western blot in the renal cortex of rats. (b, c) Densitometry is performed for quantification, and the ratio of cleaved caspase-3 or α-SMA to tubulin is expressed as fold of control. (d) TGF-β1 level is assayed in renal cortex lysates. (e) Bar graph shows the fraction of the renal cortex occupied by interstitial tissue (INT%). CON = vehicle-treated nondiabetic group; SDX = treated with 10 mg/kg/day sulodexide. #, ##, and ### versus CON. and versus vehicle-treated diabetic control (DM).