Sulodexide Protects Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Injury via Upregulating Klotho Expression at an Early Stage of Diabetic Kidney Disease
Effect of SDX on cellular apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. (a) The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, α-SMA, and tubulin are analyzed by Western blot in the renal cortex of rats. (b, c) Densitometry is performed for quantification, and the ratio of cleaved caspase-3 or α-SMA to tubulin is expressed as fold of control. (d) TGF-β1 level is assayed in renal cortex lysates. (e) Bar graph shows the fraction of the renal cortex occupied by interstitial tissue (INT%). CON = vehicle-treated nondiabetic group; SDX = treated with 10 mg/kg/day sulodexide. #, ##, and ### versus CON. and versus vehicle-treated diabetic control (DM).