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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5164292, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5164292
Review Article

Renoprotective Effects of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin: A Review in Type 2 Diabetes

1Agrarian School of Viseu (ESAV), Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (IPV), 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal
2Centre for the Study of Education, Technologies and Health (CI&DETS), Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (IPV), 3500-606 Viseu, Portugal
3Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (IBILI), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
4CNC.IBILI Research Consortium, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to Rosa Fernandes; tp.cu.demf@sednanrefcr and Flávio Reis; tp.cu.demf@sierf

Received 21 May 2017; Accepted 12 July 2017; Published 27 August 2017

Academic Editor: Kim Connelly

Copyright © 2017 Cristina Mega et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is now the single commonest cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide and one of the main causes of death in diabetic patients. It is also acknowledged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since sitagliptin was approved, many studies have been carried out revealing its ability to not only improve metabolic control but also ameliorate dysfunction in various diabetes-targeted organs, especially the kidney, due to putative underlying cytoprotective properties, namely, its antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic properties. Despite overall recommendations, many patients spend a long time well outside the recommended glycaemic range and, therefore, have an increased risk for developing micro- and macrovascular complications. Currently, it is becoming clearer that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management must envision not only the improvement in glycaemic control but also, and particularly, the prevention of pancreatic deterioration and the evolution of complications, such as DN. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge in the field of renoprotective actions of sitagliptin, namely, improvement in diabetic dysmetabolism, hemodynamic factors, renal function, diabetic kidney lesions, and cytoprotective properties.