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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8095926, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8095926
Review Article

Adipokines: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Vascular Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

1Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
2NovaMed Medical Research Association, Cairo, Egypt
3Fayoum Medical Student Association, Fayoum, Egypt
4Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
5Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
6Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
7Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim; ge.ude.zeus.tev@m.miadledba

Received 28 October 2016; Accepted 16 January 2017; Published 13 February 2017

Academic Editor: Harald Sourij

Copyright © 2017 Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.