Table 1: Components and scoring system for the cardiovascular reflex tests [7, 16].

CARTsScores (values)
Normal (0 points)Borderline (1 point)Abnormal (2 points)

(A) HR response to deep breathing1511–14⩽10
(B) Valsalva ratio1.211.11–1.20⩽1.10
(C) HR response to standing (30 : 15 ratio)1.041.01–1.03⩽1.00
(D) Postural blood pressure change⩽1011–2930

CARTs, cardiovascular reflex tests.