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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8921712, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8921712
Review Article

High Fasting Plasma Glucose during Early Pregnancy: A Review about Early Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

1Department of Endocrinology-Diabetology-Nutrition, AP-HP, Jean Verdier Hospital, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CRNH-IdF, CINFO, Bondy, France
2Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR U1153 Inserm/U1125 Inra/Cnam/Université Paris 13, Bobigny, France
3Department of Gynecology-Obstetrics, AP-HP, Jean Verdier Hospital, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bondy, France

Correspondence should be addressed to E. Cosson; rf.phpa@nossoc.leunamme

Received 27 July 2017; Accepted 19 September 2017; Published 18 October 2017

Academic Editor: Patrizio Tatti

Copyright © 2017 E. Cosson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is nowadays routinely measured during early pregnancy to detect preexisting diabetes (FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L). This screening has concomitantly led to identify early intermediate hyperglycemia, defined as FPG in the 5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L range, also early gestational diabetes mellitus (eGDM). Early FPG has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, but the recommendation by the IADPSG to refer women with eGDM for immediate management is more pragmatic than evidence based. Although eGDM is characterized by insulin resistance and associated with classical risk factors for type 2 diabetes and incident diabetes after delivery, it is not necessarily associated with preexisting prediabetes. FPG ≥ 5.1 mmol/L in early pregnancy is actually poorly predictive of gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed after 24 weeks of gestation. An alternative threshold should be determined but may vary according to ethnicity, gestational age, and body mass index. Finally, observational data suggest that early management of intermediate hyperglycemia may improve prognosis, through reduced gestational weight gain and potential early introduction of hypoglycemic agents. Considering all these issues, we suggest an algorithm for the management of eGDM based on early FPG levels that would be measured in case of risk factors. Nevertheless, interventional randomized trials are still missing.