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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8927473, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8927473
Review Article

Cardiovascular Screening for the Asymptomatic Patient with Diabetes: More Cons Than Pros

First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece

Correspondence should be addressed to Konstantinos Makrilakis; rg.aou.dem@alirkamk

Received 26 June 2017; Revised 17 October 2017; Accepted 5 November 2017; Published 14 December 2017

Academic Editor: Kim Connelly

Copyright © 2017 Konstantinos Makrilakis and Stavros Liatis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. Although it frequently coexists with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, it confers an increased risk for CVD events on its own. Coronary atherosclerosis is generally more aggressive and widespread in people with diabetes (PWD) and is frequently asymptomatic. Screening for silent myocardial ischaemia can be applied in a wide variety of ways. In nearly all asymptomatic PWD, however, the results of screening will generally not change medical therapy, since aggressive preventive measures, such as control of blood pressure and lipids, would have been already indicated, and above all, invasive revascularization procedures (either with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) have not been shown in randomized clinical trials to confer any benefit on morbidity and mortality. Still, unresolved issues remain regarding the extent of the underlying ischaemia that might affect the risk and the benefit of revascularization (on top of optimal medical therapy) in ameliorating this risk in patients with moderate to severe ischaemia. The issues related to the detection of coronary atherosclerosis and ischaemia, as well as the studies related to management of CHD in asymptomatic PWD, will be reviewed here.