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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 9631435, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9631435
Review Article

Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus

1Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
2Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
3College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
4Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology (IBCN), Italian National Council of Research (CNR), Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Muhammad U. Sohail; moc.liamg@liahosramurd

Received 24 May 2017; Accepted 24 August 2017; Published 26 September 2017

Academic Editor: Ponnusamy Saravanan

Copyright © 2017 Muhammad U. Sohail et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Although the exact cause of the disease is not fully clear, perhaps, genetics, ethnic origin, obesity, age, and lifestyle are considered as few of many contributory factors for the disease pathogenesis. In recent years, the disease progression is particularly linked with functional and taxonomic alterations in the gastrointestinal tract microbiome. A change in microbial diversity, referred as microbial dysbiosis, alters the gut fermentation profile and intestinal wall integrity and causes metabolic endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation, autoimmunity, and other affiliated metabolic disorders. This article aims to summarize the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Additionally, we summarize gut microbial dysbiosis in preclinical and clinical diabetes cases reported in literature in the recent years.