Table 1: Characteristics of DM patients with DN (cases) and without DN (controls).

DM patients with DN ()aDM patients without DN ()a

Age (years)63 (54, 71)61 (54, 68)0.001
Sex, male (%)63.55 (258/406)58.41 (271/464)0.121
BMI (kg/m2)25.80 (23.89, 28.36)25.36 (23.20, 27.68)0.006
Duration of diabetes (years)15 (9, 21)13 (10, 18)0.097
History of hypertension (%)78.82 (320/406)49.35 (229/464)<0.001
Smoking (%)34.73 (141/406)28.23 (131/464)0.039
SBP (mmHg)138 (125, 150)127 (120, 140)<0.001
DBP (mmHg)80 (74, 84)80 (70, 80)0.048
A1C (%)7.6 (6.5, 9.3)7.9 (6.7,9.3)0.148
Hcy (umol/L)13.63 (11.03, 17.12)11.48 (9.51, 13.42)<0.001
TC (mmol/L)4.25 (3.44, 5.06)4.14 (3.53, 4.86)0.36
HDL-C (mmol/L)0.96 (0.78, 1.18)1.02 (0.85, 1.24)0.004
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.39 (1.85, 2.98)2.38 (1.94, 2.97)0.535
TG (mmol/L)1.71 (1.20, 2.56)1.42 (0.99, 2.18)<0.001

BMI: body mass index; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; Hcy: homocysteine; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol SBP: systolic blood pressure; TC: triglyceride. aData are shown as median (interquantile range) or %.