Journal of Diabetes Research / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes

Table 1

Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), clinical blood measurements, and self-reported lifestyle data at follow-up 6 years after GDM pregnancy.

VariableNGTIGTT2DM (BMI adjusted)
nMeanSDnMeanSDnMeanSDIGT versus NGTT2D versus NGTT2D versus IGTIGT versus NGTT2D versus NGTT2D versus IGT

Anthropometry and blood pressure
BMI (kg/m2)13926.14.84629.44.54429.15.8<0.0010.002
BMI change (kg/m2)139−0.43.0461.83.144−0.43.5<0.0010.0030.001
Waist (cm)13787.510.84594.216.24494.614.50.0070.004
Hip (cm)137102.39.745108.49.144107.111.80.0020.02
Waist : hip ratio1370.90.1450.90.1440.90.1
Body fat (%)5932.97.91640.56.61238.513.20.007
Fat mass (kg)5923.49.51632.310.71231.815.80.010.04
Fat-free mass (kg)5945.65.41646.06.71245.96.0
BP systolic (mmHg)138113.912.846122.914.044119.214.2<0.0010.02
BP diastolic (mmHg)13874.99.64678.69.84478.110.6
Clinical blood measurements
b-HbA1c (mmol/mol)13937.13.74538.43.84452.618.8<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
p-glucose fasting (mM)1385.40.4436.10.4448.23.50.02<0.001<0.0010.02<0.001<0.001
p-glucose 2 h (mM)1285.51.1427.81.61211.83.9<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
s-insulin fasting (mU/L)1348.04.24314.49.54412.87.4<0.001<0.001<0.0010.003
s-insulin 2 h (mU/L)12144.737.74087.157.11285.358.4<0.0010.008<0.0010.01
HOMA-IR1331.91.0433.82.7434.93.4<0.001<0.0010.04<0.001<0.0010.004
s-total cholesterol (mM)1374.70.8454.70.8434.70.7
s-HDL (mM)1381.50.3451.30.3441.40.40.0010.040.04
s-LDL (mM)1382.90.8453.10.7443.00.6
s-triglycerides (mM)1370.90.5451.20.5441.41.4<0.0010.002
s-leptin (mg/L)13418.211.84229.312.94424.422.4<0.0010.040.03
s-adiponectin (ug/L)13717.814.54118.115.94414.212.9
Leptin : adiponectin 10−31371.861.95412.832.52443.513.670.0010.02
s-C-reactive protein (mg/L)1372.13.6433.13.1445.58.2<0.0010.0080.007
p-free fatty acids (mM)1380.430.18410.560.20440.590.220.001<0.0010.001<0.001
ADIPO-IR (mM·pM)13424.117.64053.638.24455.740.5<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
Questionnaires
Physical activity1204.01.1383.31.0343.41.30.0080.020.0090.02
Energy intake (kcal)882390561312366735172258610
Protein intake (g/kg)881.40.4311.20.4171.40.5
Fat intake (g/kg)881.60.5311.30.4171.50.5
Carbohydrate intake (g/kg)883.71.2313.21.3173.41.3

The women were divided into glucose tolerance groups based on follow-up OGTT. Statistical analyses were done with ANOVA () and ANCOVA (BMI-adjusted ). BMI change refers to change from start of pregnancy to follow-up. Macronutrient intake expressed as g/kg body weight. b, whole blood; p, plasma; s, serum.