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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4238435, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4238435
Research Article

Host-Parasite Interactions in Individuals with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Result in Higher Frequency of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

1Curso de Enfermagem, Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Unidade Taguatinga, Universidade Kroton, Taguatinga, DF, Brazil
2Laboratório de Parasitologia Médica e Biologia de Vetores, Área de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Asa Norte, 70904-970 Brasilia, DF, Brazil
3Laboratório de Imunologia, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
4Núcleo de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
5National Institute for Science and Technology for Health Technology Assessment (IATS/CNPq), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
6Laboratório de Imunologia Celular, Área de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia, DF, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Eleuza Rodrigues Machado; moc.liamg@894odahcamseugirdorazuele

Received 25 September 2017; Revised 6 December 2017; Accepted 13 December 2017; Published 6 February 2018

Academic Editor: Marco Songini

Copyright © 2018 Eleuza Rodrigues Machado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2) were analyzed using two parasitological methods. Enteroparasites or commensals frequency in diabetics was 64%. Diabetics infected with up to six species of intestinal parasites or commensals were found. Frequencies of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia were higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The lower frequency of A. lumbricoides found in type 1 diabetes may be related to a strong Th2 response to parasites. Autoimmune response developed in type 1 diabetic individuals characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines could explain low frequency of G. lamblia. High frequency of parasites found in type 2 diabetes emphasizes the importance of periodic parasitological examinations in these individuals.