Journal of Diabetes Research / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Determinants of Change in Glycemic Status in Individuals with Prediabetes: Results from a Nationwide Cohort Study in Germany

Table 1

Baseline characteristics of individuals with prediabetes at baseline () according to HbA1c-defined glycemic status at follow-up.

Regression to normoglycemiaRemained prediabeticProgression to
Undiagnosed diabetesDiagnosed diabetes

(%)300 (33.8%)364 (46.2%)52 (7.2%)101 (12.8%)
Unmodifiable risk factors
Sociodemographic factors
 Age (years)48.5 (45.9; 51.1)49.6 (47.6; 51.7)53.8 (50.5; 57.2)57.0 (54.8; 59.2)
 Male sex53.3 (46.5; 60.1)61.5 (54.8; 67.8)48.1 (30.4; 66.2)41.6 (31.1; 52.9)
 Educational level
  Low52.2 (45.0; 59.4)52.6 (45.6; 59.6)52.4 (34.2; 70.2)71.8 (61.6; 82.0)
  Medium/high47.8 (40.6; 55.0)47.4 (40.4; 54.4)47.3 (29.8; 65.8)28.2 (18.0; 38.4)
Family history of diabetes
 At least one parent with diabetes27.1 (19.6; 34.5)35.4 (29.9; 40.8)31.1 (10.6; 51.6)46.7 (34.6; 58.8)
Modifiable risk factors
Anthropometric markers
 BMI (kg/m2)26.6 (25.8; 27.3)27.5 (27.0; 28.1)29.6 (28.5; 30.6)30.4 (29.3; 31.6)
 Waist circumference (cm)91.1 (89.1; 93.1)94.3 (92.8; 95.7)98.6 (94.7; 102.5)101.3 (98.0; 104.5)
Lifestyle factors
 Any sport activity per week44.9 (37.5; 52.4)51.2 (44.3; 58.1)43.8 (29.1; 59.9)39.6 (29.8; 49.4)
 Smoker at baseline
  Never36.9 (30.4; 43.4)38.2 (31.4; 45.0)51.2 (36.5; 65.9)43.9 (33.1; 54.7)
  Former16.7 (11.7; 21.7)24.7 (19.7; 29.7)26.7 (15.6; 42.1)25.2 (15.7; 34.8)
  Current46.4 (39.1; 53.8)37.1 (30.9; 43.3)21.8 (11.9; 36.7)30.9 (20.7; 41.1)
 Intake of whole grains (portions/day)1.3 (1.2; 1.5)1.2 (1.1; 1.4)1.0 (0.8; 1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.3)
 Intake of red meat (portions/day)0.58 (0.55; 0.60)0.59 (0.57; 0.61)0.54 (0.50; 0.58)0.52 (0.47–0.57)
 Intake of coffee (cups/day)3.2 (2.9; 3.4)3.1 (2.8; 3.3)2.8 (2.4; 3.1)2.8 (2.4; 3.2)
Residential traffic intensity
 Heavy/extreme residential traffic intensity25.5 (18.3; 32.7)23.5 (17.7; 29.4)28.1 (13.5; 49.6)33.5 (22.8; 44.2)
Mental distress (points)73.9 (71.6; 76.1)75.4 (73.3; 77.4)79.0 (74.2; 83.7)70.9 (67.0; 74.8)
GDRS (points)538 (514; 563)575 (557; 592)633 (599; 666)690 (661; 720)
Metabolic markers
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)56.4 (53.5; 59.4)52.4 (50.4; 54.6)51.3 (47.9; 54.9)50.3 (47.5; 53.2)
 Triglycerides (mg/dl)121.9 (111.0; 133.8)144.1 (134.2; 154.7)187.0 (150.2; 232.9)175.2 (155.0; 198.0)
 GGT (U/l)13.9 (12.7; 15.1)15.6 (14.6; 16.7)18.9 (16.2; 22.1)20.1 (17.2; 23.5)
 ALT (U/l)12.3 (11.4; 13.2)12.7 (12.0; 13.5)16.0 (13.3; 19.2)15.0 (13.5; 16.5)
 hs-CRP (mg/l)1.4 (1.1; 1.7)1.3 (1.2; 1.5)1.4 (0.9; 2.3)2.3 (1.7; 3.1)

Information is given as weighted proportions (95% CI) for categorical variables, as weighted arithmetic mean (95% CI) for continuous variables, and in case of metabolic markers and predicted 5-year diabetes risk as weighted geometric mean (95% CI). Differences in proportions and means between groups of glycemic status (reference group: remained prediabetic) were assessed by logistic regression and ANOVA. Bold numbers indicate .

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