Journal of Diabetes Research / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Determinants of Change in Glycemic Status in Individuals with Prediabetes: Results from a Nationwide Cohort Study in Germany

Table 2

Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for associations between risk factors of type 2 diabetes and change in glycemic status during follow-up among individuals with prediabetes at baseline ().

Risk factor at baselineRegression to normoglycemiaRemained prediabeticProgression to
Undiagnosed diabetesDiagnosed diabetes

(%)300 (33.8%)364 (46.2%)52 (7.2%)101 (12.8%)
Unmodifiable risk factors
Sociodemographic factors
 Age (per year)Model 10.99 (0.97; 1.01)1.00 (ref)1.02 (1.00; 1.04)1.04 (1.02; 1.06)
 Sex (male vs. female)Model 10.67 (0.46; 0.98)1.00 (ref)0.66 (0.30; 1.44)0.56 (0.33; 0.97)
 Educational level (low vs. middle/high)Model 11.03 (0.69; 1.54)1.00 (ref)0.82 (0.38; 1.77)1.72 (0.90; 3.30)
Family history of diabetes
 At least one parent with diabetes (yes vs. no)Model 10.65 (0.41; 1.03)1.00 (ref)0.85 (0.31; 2.35)1.82 (1.05; 3.15)
Modifiable risk factors
Anthropometric markers
 BMI (per 1 kg/m2)Model 10.95 (0.90; 1.01)1.00 (ref)1.09 (1.03; 1.16)1.12 (1.05; 1.19)
Model 20.95 (0.90; 1.00)1.00 (ref)1.10 (1.02; 1.18)1.13 (1.06; 1.21)
 Waist circumference (per 1 cm)Model 10.98 (0.96; 1.00)1.00 (ref)1.04 (1.01; 1.07)1.06 (1.03; 1.09)
Model 20.98 (0.96; 1.00)1.00 (ref)1.04 (1.01; 1.07)1.06 (1.03; 1.09)
Lifestyle factors
 Sport (no sport vs. any sport)Model 11.29 (0.89; 1.88)1.00 (ref)1.28 (0.64; 2.55)1.48 (0.88; 2.50)
Model 21.39 (0.96; 2.01)1.00 (ref)1.04 (0.47; 2.27)0.93 (0.52; 1.65)
 Smoker (former vs. never)Model 10.81 (0.49; 1.33)1.00 (ref)0.94 (0.37; 2.47)1.22 (0.62; 2.42)
Model 20.79 (0.48; 1.30)1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.39; 2.36)1.21 (0.59; 2.48)
 Smoker (current vs. never)Model 11.40 (0.87; 2.27)1.00 (ref)0.57 (0.24; 1.33)1.42 (0.75; 2.66)
Model 21.29 (0.79; 2.13)1.00 (ref)0.59 (0.23; 1.52)1.58 (0.78; 3.20)
 Intake of whole grains (per portion)Model 11.12 (0.90; 1.39)1.00 (ref)0.69 (0.46; 1.03)0.89 (0.63; 1.27)
Model 21.18 (0.95; 1.46)1.00 (ref)0.68 (0.44; 1.06)0.95 (0.64; 1.40)
 Intake of red meat (per portion)Model 11.42 (0.41; 4.86)1.00 (ref)0.54 (0.09; 3.44)0.41 (0.05; 3.46)
Model 21.82 (0.52; 6.30)1.00 (ref)0.36 (0.06; 2.24)0.31 (0.03; 3.00)
 Intake of coffee (per cup)Model 11.04 (0.92; 1.18)1.00 (ref)0.91 (0.77; 1.08)0.94 (0.77; 1.14)
Model 21.03 (0.90; 1.17)1.00 (ref)0.91 (0.74; 1.11)0.88 (0.71; 1.10)
Residential traffic intensity (heavy/extreme vs. rare/considerable)Model 11.13 (0.71; 1.78)1.00 (ref)1.25 (0.49; 3.21)1.60 (0.99; 2.58)
Model 21.10 (0.70; 1.74)1.00 (ref)1.25 (0.51; 3.09)1.30 (0.76; 2.23)
Mental distress (per 10 points)Model 10.97 (0.85; 1.09)1.00 (ref)1.19 (0.93; 1.51)0.86 (0.72; 1.02)
Model 20.99 (0.87; 1.12)1.00 (ref)1.18 (0.92; 1.51)0.86 (0.72; 1.03)
GDRS (per 10 points)Unadjusted0.98 (0.97; 1.00)1.00 (ref)1.03 (1.01; 1.06)1.07 (1.04; 1.10)
Metabolic markers
 HDL cholesterol (per 10 mg/dl)Model 11.16 (1.01; 1.33)1.00 (ref)0.87 (0.69; 1.08)0.74 (0.62; 0.89)
Model 21.17 (1.02; 1.35)1.00 (ref)0.90 (0.71; 1.14)0.85 (0.70; 1.04)
 Triglycerides (per 10 mg/dl)Model 10.98 (0.96; 1.01)1.00 (ref)1.04 (1.01; 1.06)1.03 (1.01; 1.05)
Model 20.99 (0.96; 1.01)1.00 (ref)1.03 (1.01; 1.06)1.02 (1.00; 1.04)
 GGT (per 1 U/l)Model 11.00 (0.98; 1.02)1.00 (ref)1.02 (1.01; 1.04)1.03 (1.02; 1.05)
Model 21.00 (0.98; 1.02)1.00 (ref)1.02 (1.00; 1.03)1.03 (1.01; 1.04)
 ALT (per 1 U/l)Model 11.00 (0.97; 1.03)1.00 (ref)1.07 (1.03; 1.12)1.08 (1.04; 1.12)
Model 21.02 (0.98; 1.05)1.00 (ref)1.06 (1.01; 1.10)1.07 (1.03; 1.10)
 hs-CRP (per 1 mg/l)Model 11.02 (0.99; 1.06)1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.84; 1.08)1.02 (0.98; 1.05)
Model 21.02 (0.99; 1.06)1.00 (ref)0.91 (0.76; 1.08)0.98 (0.95; 1.02)

Bold numbers indicate statistically significant ORs (). For all individual risk factors, model 1 was adjusted for age and sex. For anthropometric markers, model 2 was additionally adjusted for educational level, lifestyle factors, residential traffic intensity, and mental distress. For lifestyle factors, residential traffic intensity, mental distress, and metabolic markers, model 2 was additionally adjusted for educational level, anthropometric markers, lifestyle factors, residential traffic intensity, and mental distress.

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