AGE/RAGE-Induced EMP Release via the NOX-Derived ROS Pathway
Flow cytometry detection of endothelial microparticles (EMPs). (a) EMPs (R2) and calibrator beads (R1) are represented on a forward scatter/side scatter dot plot histogram. (b) EMPs were analyzed for fluorescence associated with CD31-FITC. (c) Levels of EMP in HUVECs. The level of EMPs upon AGE stimulation was greatly enhanced. Pretreatment with anti-RAGE antibody (5 μg/ml), NOX-1/NOX-4 inhibitor (GKT137831, 10 μmol/l), or ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 10 μmol/l) suppressed high doses of AGE-induce EMP releasing ( versus control, versus 200 μg/ml AGEs, and versus 400 μg/ml AGEs). Data are expressed as mean ± SD in each group.