Table 3: Demographic and clinical findings of subjects with and without macrovascular disease.

VariableNo macrovascular disease ()Macrovascular disease () value

Age (years)66 (62–69)61 (54.25–67)0.001
Male : female (n (%))34 (69.4) : 15 (30.6)55 (76.4) : 17 (23.6)0.41
Diabetes duration (years)3.5 (2–5)3 (2–4)0.23
Smoking (current/ex/nonsmokers) (n (%))4 (8.1)/19 (38.8)/26 (53.1)18 (25.0)/22 (30.6)/32 (44.4)0.06
Hypertension (n (%))29 (59.18)51 (70.83)0.24
Hyperlipidaemia (n (%))36 (73.47)51 (70.83)0.84
CKD (n (%))2 (4.08)7 (9.72)0.31
Metformin (n (%))44 (89.80)65 (90.28)1.00
Sulphonylurea (n (%))14 (28.57)50 (69.44)0.84
Gliptins (n (%))4 (8.16)2 (2.77)0.22
Insulin (n (%))1 (2.04)5 (6.94)0.40
ACEI/ARB (n (%))29 (59.18)48 (66.67)0.44
β-blocker (n (%))7 (14.29)15 (20.83)0.47
CCB (n (%))11 (22.45)12 (16.67)0.48
Diuretic (n (%))14 (28.57)19 (26.39)0.84
Aspirin (n (%))9 (18.36)29 (40.28)0.02
Statin (n (%))29 (59.18)52 (72.22)0.17
Fibrate (n (%))6 (12.24)1 (1.39)0.02
Allopurinol (n (%))2 (4.08)3 (4.17)1.00
BMI (kg/m2)31.22 (27.67–33.97)31.31 (27.9–35.19)0.35
BSA (m2)1.83 ± 0.201.93 ± 0.210.007
Waist index1.17 ± 0.151.20 ± 0.130.22
Pulse rate (bpm)65 (61–80.25)71 (62–78)0.84
Mean SBP (mmHg)146 ± 18.28142.96 ± 17.540.36
Mean DBP (mmHg)85.66 ± 7.3483.88 ± 9.580.25
Pulse pressure (mmHg)62.18 ± 15.661.07 ± 12.220.68
MAP (mmHg)106 (97.5–112.5)90.75 (107.5–113)0.77

Values are expressed as number (%) of patients, mean ± SD, or median (IQR). ACEI: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI: body mass index; BSA: body surface area; CCB: calcium channel blocker; CKD: chronic kidney disease; CVD: cardiovascular disease; DM: diabetes mellitus; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; MAP: mean arterial pressure; SBP: systolic blood pressure.