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Journal of Diabetes Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 7617524, 10 pages
Research Article

Sex Differences in the Prevalence and Modulators of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes

1Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
3Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to S. Stadler; ed.rku@reldats.nafets

Received 15 December 2017; Revised 11 February 2018; Accepted 13 February 2018; Published 1 April 2018

Academic Editor: Raffaele Marfella

Copyright © 2018 T. Kroner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In patients with type 2 diabetes, sleep-disordered breathing is a widespread cause of deteriorated quality of life. However, robust prevalence estimates for sleep-disordered breathing in patients with type 2 diabetes are limited due to scarce data. We investigated sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing prevalence and its modulators in the DIACORE SDB substudy, a sample of outpatient type 2 diabetes. 721 participants were tested for sleep-disordered breathing using a two-channel sleep apnoea monitoring device. Patients were stratified according to the severity of sleep-disordered breathing, defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index < 15, ≥15 to 29, and ≥30 events per hour as no/mild, moderate, and severe sleep-disordered breathing, respectively. In the 679 analysed patients (39% women, age 66 ± 9 years, body mass index 31.0 ± 5.4 kg/m2), the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was 34%. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was higher in men than in women (41% versus 22%, ) and increased with age (15%, 21%, and 30% in women and 35%, 40%, and 47% in men in those aged 18–59, 60–69, or ≥70, respectively; age trend in women and in men). In linear regression analysis, age, BMI, and waist-hip ratio were associated with apnoea-hypopnoea index. Modulators for higher apnoea-hypopnoea index seem to be similar in men and women.