Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Self-Reported Physical Activity and Relations to Growth and Neurotrophic Factors in Diabetes Mellitus: The Framingham Offspring Study

Table 4

The relations of physical activity variables to IGF-1, VEGF, and BDNF levels in participants without DM ().

Per SD of factorModelIGF-1VEGFBDNF

Sedentary time10.4740.1280.539
20.3410.0880.388
Total physical activity10.6950.1010.819
20.7970.0820.938
Ambulatory activity10.1130.3110.371
20.2860.2070.567

Abbreviations: APOE4: apolipoprotein E4; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor-1; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factors; SE: standard error; DM: diabetes mellitus. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: additionally adjusted for body mass index, smoking, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid medication, and APOE4. of stairs and city blocks walked each day, which were added together to quantify the total amount of ambulatory (walking) physical activity. Ambulatory activity was natural log transformed, sedentary time was square root transformed, and total physical activity (PAI) was inverse transformed, but we reversed the sign for total physical activity to make higher values consistent with more physical activity. VEGF was also natural log transformed. All variables were standardized to a mean of 0 and SD of 1 to facilitate comparison.

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