Visfatin Induces Inflammation and Insulin Resistance via the NF-κB and STAT3 Signaling Pathways in Hepatocytes
Visfatin impaired insulin signaling. (a) HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of visfatin (100–400 ng/mL) for 24 h and then stimulated with 10 nM insulin for 10 min. After harvesting, insulin signaling was analyzed by immunoblotting using antibodies against phospho-IR (p-IR), phospho-IRS-1 (p-IRS-1), phospho-AKT (p-AKT), phospho-GSK-3α/β (p-GSK-3α/β), and actin. (b) The phosphoprotein intensities in insulin-treated samples lacking visfatin were set to 100%, and the relative intensities of test samples were then calculated. The data are of those of three independent experiments. ,, and compared to the insulin-treated control.
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