Journal of Diabetes Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Effects of Probiotic Supplement in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Table 2

The results of subgroup analysis according to intervention type and age.

SubgroupStudiesPatientsMean difference (95% CI) unless other specifiedHeterogeneity ()% value

Macrosomia
Intervention
Probiotics32640.47 (0.10, 2.15)560.47
Synbiotics1600.14 (0.01, 2.65)
Mean age
<3021200.13 (0.02, 1.08)00.09
≥3022040.89 (0.45, 1.77)64
FBG
Intervention
Probiotics8510-4.08 (-4.90, -3.26)950.49
Synbiotics2160-2.75 (-6.42, 0.92)0
Mean age
<305324-6.84 (-7.96, -5.72)63<0.00001
≥305346-1.15 (-2.28, -0.01)94
FSI
Intervention
Probiotics7450-2.24 (-3.28, -1.20)810.54
Synbiotics2160-3.90 (-9.07, 1.27)57
Mean age
<304264-1.40 (-1.67, -1.13)640.007
≥305346-2.41 (-3.10, -1.72)80
HOMA-IR
Intervention
Probiotics7450-0.67 (-0.94, -0.40)820.72
Synbiotics3160-0.87 (-1.92, -0.19)73
Mean age
<304264-0.42 (-0.49, -0.36)590.01
≥305346-0.66 (-0.83, -0.49)83
QUICKI
Intervention
Probiotics42210.01 (0.01, 0.01)740.86
Synbiotics21600.01 (0.01, 0.03)60
Mean age
<3042640.01 (0.01, 0.01)760.02
≥3021170.01 (0.01, 0.02)0
Triglycerides
Intervention
Probiotics4265-17.51 (-27.47, -7.54)60.71
Synbiotics2160-20.71 (-34.62, -6.80)86
Mean age
<303208-20.47 (-32.11, -8.82)730.66
≥303217-16.84 (-28.12, -5.56)36

The effect measure is the risk ratio (95% CI). GDM: gestational diabetes mellitus; FBG: fasting blood glucose; FSI: fasting serum insulin; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; QUICKI: quantitative insulin sensitivity check index.

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